News from the IAAEU





Colloquium on Economics at the IAAEU

On Tuesday, June 22th, 2021 (18:00 h) the next online lecture will take place within the framework of the economic colloquium, to which we cordially invite you. Adam Ayaita from the RWTH Aachen will present the paper "Labor Market Discrimination and Statistical Differences in Unobserved Characteristics of Applicants". Please find further information here.




Prizes, Distinctions & News


The IAAEU’s new Podcast on Current Labour Law Decisions

As of now the IAAEU will be releasing a podcast on labour law, where particularly interesting decisions and rulings in the world of labour law will be discussed and presented didactically. This offer is produced in German language and mainly directed towards students in advanced semesters in attempt to widen their perspective on problems and questions related to labour law, as well as feed knowledge on specific cases. In the first episode, Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist will be discussing the decision on strike mobilisation on company premises, made by the German Federal Labour Court in 2018 (Urteil v. 20.11.2018 – 1 AZR 189/17).

The podcast is produced by a team of research and graduate assistants from the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union and the University of Trier. As of now, episodes will be available at and soon to be on conventional platforms as well.



Bob Hepple Award for Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter

During this year’s conference held by the Labour Law Research Network and scheduled for June 2021 (University of Warsaw/online), the „Bob Hepple Award for Lifetime Achievements in Labour Law“ will be presented for the fifth time. This year’s winners are Professor Monika Schlachter (Universität Trier/IAAEU) and Professor Matthew Finkin (University of Illinois, USA).

The Labour Law Research Network, founded in 2011, will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary this year. The Network is currently an association of 79 different institutes and centers world wide, bound together by their independent research in areas of labour law. Besides research, promoting the exchange of ideas and knowledge is a top priority, especially in regards to international research cooperations on current and global issues. Efforts are expressed through the aforementioned conference, which takes place biannually, with participants from the Network itself and also with junior researchers presenting their results and opening up discussions.

The Bob Hepple Award is named after the renowned British post-war representative of comparative law in the field of labour law. Following the statutes of the association, the award is presented every two years in appreciation of an exceptional life-long endeavour in the field of labour law. Each member of the association is entitled to recommend nominees. The nomination committee then chooses a figure, whose work has reached significant acclamation in no less than the past twenty years and signifies this figures capability as a representative of the field. Previous award winners have been colleagues from Great Britain, Canada, Italy, Japan, the USA and Sweden; in Germany lastly Professor Manfred Weiss (2015, University of Frankfurt).

This year’s award winner, Professor Monika Schlachter, teaches in the department of law at the University of Trier and is head of the IAAEU’s Judicial Department. She has gained acclaim with a number of contributions to European and international labour law, as well as through comparative labour law and international labour law.



TriECON Workshop on COVID-19 and Labour Markets

The spread of the COVID-19 Pandemic has had a considerable impact on the labour market and economy of many European countries since March 2020. Many employees now work from home due to restrictions imposed by the government. Some sectors were forced to decommission their ongoing course of business permanently. Subsequently, many researchers are investigating the effects that the COVID-19 Pandemic may have on the labour market. In order to facilitate a deeper look into this issue, the IAAEU, along with the Chair of Personnel Economics, has hosted a one-day workshop on the topic of "COVID-19 and Labour Markets", held on May 7th, 2021. More than 30 scientists and other interested extern guests took part.

During the workshop, eight scientific papers were presented and discussed. Presentations ad-dressed topics such as "home office, work performance and well-being of employees", "autono-my during the COVID-19 Pandemic", and "re-opening of schools and the spread of the Pandem-ic". Dr. Yue Huang, a researcher at the IAAEU and the Chair of Personnel Economics of the Trier University, presented her research on "Home Sweet Home: Working from Home and Employee Performance during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the UK". She demonstrated that employee per-formance in the UK, measured by self-reported productivity and working hours, is positively cor-related with the frequency of working from home. Many employees are in favour of home office even after the Pandemic. These results are politically relevant and highlight the need to create a suitable regulatory setting for the future establishment of the home office. Each presentation was followed by a lively discussion between presenters and the audience, which provided all par-ticipants with networking opportunities despite the online format. The successful online event also reflects the topic of home office at the workshop.

We would like to thank all presenters and participants for their excellent presentations and con-tributions to the discussion. You can find the program of the workshop here, as well as more in-formation on the TriECON Workshop Series in the Summer Semester of 2021 on our homepage.



Interdisciplinary Workshop at the IAAEU

On the 20th of April 2021, the interdisciplinary online workshop "Digitalisation in Employment Relations", organised by the IAAEU, took place. Guest speakers from the field of law were Prof. Dr. Daniel Ulber and Ass. Jur. Adrian Bromme, along with Prof Dr. Sabine Pfeiffer and Dr. Ulrich Zierahn as guest speakers from the economics workgroup. A large group of attendees, namely the directors of the institute, as well as the research assistants of both workgroups and other attendees, partly from the University of Trier participated in the workshop.

Dr. Ulrich Zierahn commenced with a presentation evaluating the "Effects of Digitalisation on the Working World" from an economic perspective. This was followed up by Ass. Jur. Adrian Bromme, who talked about the legal conditions of further training of employees in response to changes in activity profiles as a result of digitalisation, titled "Digitalisation as a Challenge for Personnel Trainings".

In the second part of the workshop, Prof. Dr. Sabine Pfeiffer assessed from a sociological perspective the progression of digitalisation in the past decades, in a presentation titled "A decade 4,0 Discourse - a Mid-Term Evaluation of the Digital Shift in Work Life". The workshop was concluded by Prof. Dr. Daniel Ulber, who lectured about the topic of "Challenges of Digitalisation for Working Hour Laws“, specifically focussing on the subject of removing of boundaries between work and leisure due to technical possibilities through digitalisation. Each presentation was followed up by animated discussions between lecturers and attendees. Both the presentations and the concluding discussions lead to interesting insights into the contrasting areas of research.

The organisers would like to thank all lecturers and attendees for their contribution and involvement.



Successful 13th Workshop on Labour Economics (WLE) at the IAAEU

On March 25-26, the IAAEU hosted the 13th edition of the Workshop on Labour Economics (WLE). Though no one at IAAEU had any experience with hosting such large online conferences, "Everything went surprisingly well" as Jonas Feld put it, head of organization. Usually, the WLE takes place on the premises of the IAAEU, on Trier University's Campus II. But this year, for the first time, it was converted into a virtual format.

The opportunity to attend a conference even with current travel restrictions explains why there were such a large number of attendees compared to previous versions of the annually held WLE. More than 130 people had registered for the event, as many as never before. Together they listened to 57 presentations listed on the program this year, also a record high.

Another reason behind the gradually growing interest in the WLE is surely the broad spectrum of topics touched on, and the increasing scientific reputation of this conference. Several presentations depicted Germany's job market situation, specifically focusing on the general development of wages, as well as the differences in wages between the public and private sector and the influence of the Hartz-reforms. Other presentations featured topics such as temporary employment, education, or job satisfaction – many also from a cross-country comparing perspective. Meeting the interests of many participants, presentations and subsequent discussions also acknowledged subjects such as the influence of digitalization or gender pay gaps between women and men.

Similar to previous years, the main emphasis was put on the research interests of the employees at the IAAEU and the employees of the chair of personnel economics at Trier University: There were many lectures on the current standing and the influence of trade unions and also on the labor market integration of immigrants. To conclude the conference's first day, Professor Guido Friebel from Goethe-University Frankfurt gave a keynote lecture on personnel economics experiments, highlighting associated methodological challenges.

The 2021 WLE Best Paper Award was conferred to Yajna Govind, a doctoral student at Paris School of Economics, for her job market paper entitled "Is naturalization a passport for better labor market integration? Evidence from a quasi-experimental setting ".

As summed up by Jonas Feld, representing the IAAEU, "the interest in our workshop is increasing year by year. We are delighted to have met these growing needs by hosting a virtual conference even in these particularly unusual times." Nevertheless, the WLE-Team hopes to welcome all attendees in person at the premises of IAAEU at Campus II from next year on again.



Flight delay compensation despite a strike - Aspects of labour law and fundamental rights of a consumer law issue

According to the European Flight Compensation Regulation, passengers are entitled to compensation in the event of cancellations and delays. However, the claim does not apply if the air carrier can prove that the cancellation is caused by "extraordinary circumstances" which could not have been avoided even if all reasonable measures had been taken. The question of whether these "extraordinary circumstances" also include strikes by airline staff, which is extremely relevant in practice, is judged differently by the German courts. In any case, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) did not classify a wildcat strike by employees of an airline (TUIfly) as an "extraordinary circumstance". Dr Thomas Klein has examined the issue in detail in a recent article entitled "Compensation claims under the Flight Compensation Regulation in the event of strike-related cancellation or delay". In the first part of the study, he develops typical case groups taking into account the law on industrial disputes and points out that, the air carriers' staff strikes, contrary to the former case law of the Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof), do not generally lead to the loss of compensation. In the second part of the study, he examines the fundamental rights dimension of the problem, which has not yet been adequately captured and appreciated by the case law, and comes to the conclusion that fundamental rights considerations also do not force the elimination of compensation. The article was published in issue 1/2021 of the European Journal of Business Law (EuZW 2021, 23-29).



Fourth Workshop of the TriECON Series, regarding Media Economics

Media has the potential to influence the behaviour of people and of companies in a large variety of ways. Especially in the digital age, where new technology is close at hand and media is omnipresent, on mobile phones for example. Consequent implications were the main focus of the fourth online workshop of the TriECON series this winter semester. The aim of the event was not only to acquaint scientists with one another, but also to further motivate the exchange of research ideas between them. Thirty participants from all over the world took part in the TriECON Workshop.

Nine scientific papers on the subject of "Media Economics" were presented and discussed during the course of the workshop. In part, some studies explored the influence of media on voting behavior using German and Russian data. The workshop also set out to question the link between the language in which mass media covers political topics and between the political preferences of readers. Another study analyzed the effects of crime related media coverage on the attitude of civilians towards immigration. Click here for a full programme of the Media Economics Workshop.

You can find additional information on the TriECON Workshop Series on this website.



New publication: European Labour and Social Law

In December, the second edition of the handbook on European labor and social law edited by Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter and Prof. Dr. Hans Michael Heinig was published in the Nomos series Enzyklopädie Europarecht (Volume 7). Among the authors of the volume is Dr. Thomas Klein, who edited the chapter on European posting law.



IAAEU director is one of the most frequently publishing business economists

The paper „Wirtschaftswoche“ released in December 2020 their ranking of the most publishing researchers in the field of business administration. For this analysis, publications of business economists who are working at universities and research institutions in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were recorded. The web portal "Forschungsmonitoring" serves as the data source for the ranking. In addition to the number of publications, the reputation of the approximately 850 journals included in the analysis was also taken into account of the evaluation.

Laszlo Goerke, Director of the economic department at the IAAEU and Professor of Personnel Economics at the Trier University, is among the top 4% of all business economists in terms of research in the 'Lifetime Achievement' category, in which all previous publications are considered. Other colleagues from Trier are also high represented in this category as well as those limited to publications from recent years or younger researchers (further information can be found here).

While rankings such as that of the „Wirtschaftswoche“ capture research achievements and make them comparable, the evaluation also shows how much the rankings are determined by the quality assessments of the journals which are included. The above-mentioned ranking of the director of the IAAEU is based on the quality assessment of the German Academic Association of Business Research, the so-called "Jourqual 3.0 list". Based on this list, Laszlo Goerke is ranked 129th in the 'Lifetime Achievement' category, which includes approximately 4000 people. However, if the weighting used by the paper "Handelsblatt" in a 2014 evaluation is taken as a basis, then the director of the IAAEU is one of the most frequently publishing business economists in Germany and reaches the 26th place. These differences make it clear that rankings for measuring research performance are only one indicator, albeit not an unimportant one, with which the contribution to the advancement of knowledge can be illustrated.



Third Workshop of the TriECON Series, regarding co-determination, 11th of December 2020

Employee involvement and co-determination is indispensable to the system of industrial relations in Germany. The gradual decline in the share of firms with a works council, as well as employees represented by such a council, along with an increase in alternative forms of employee representation, continuously create challenges for areas of practice and research. Hence, the third virtual workshop of the TriECON Series taking place December 11th, attended to these matters.

Presented research projects provided insight into various topics. On the one hand, determinants for the existence of works councils were examined, an example being businesses that are only partly versus fully run by family owners. On the other hand, projects touched on the effects of works councils on several company concerning aspects, as well as the link between collective agreements, for example for corporate health care regulations. Another notable project presented at the workshop, concerned a less often used form of employee involvement, namely using round tables voluntarily, which goes along with increased productivity in the long run. In the keynote lecture, Professor John Addison (University of South Carolina) expressed, that not only the presence of a works council, but also this council’s approach, can determine a corporation’s survivability in the market. In total, the workshop outlined that researchers are dealing with evermore diverse research questions, going hand in hand with differential assessments of co-determination. Thereby, research projects contributed to the understanding of co-determination, its versatility, mechanisms and adaptivity in today’s world.

In addition to the speakers, many guests attended the workshop virtually. Apart from outstanding presentations, the workshop was characterized by a first-rate discussion, where not only established researchers but also junior researchers could participate. Visit the following link to find more information on the TriECON Workshop.



Application and implementation of fundamental rights and protection of fundamental rights in the European multi-level system

As a result of the "right to forget" decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court, constitutional case law on the protection of fundamental rights in the multi-level system and on the relationship between fundamental rights under Union law and fundamental rights under national law has undergone a considerable realignment. In a recent article, Dr. Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist have dealt with the far-reaching consequences of these decisions both for the constitutional court's review standards in general and for labor law shaped by union and fundamental rights in particular. They conclude that these decisions have explosive power, especially in the area of collective labor law. The study was published in the current issue of the Zeitschrift für Europäisches Sozial- und Arbeitsrecht (ZESAR) on pp. 449-458.



At the IAAEU, the TriECON virtual events continued with an online workshop on “Organizations, Incentives and Performance Pay”

From “restrictions” arise opportunities! Meeting researchers with shared interests and creating new networks was not easy this year. However, the IAAEU, in cooperation with the Chair of Personnel Economics at Faculty IV, hosted another one-day virtual workshop. The workshop took place on Friday, November 20th, and it was a platform to let people meet without traveling. This time we offered a virtual room on the topic “Organizations, Incentives and Performance Pay”.

As per usual of the TriECON virtual events, including this time, we had two goals. We wanted to create an active discussion about a central research topic while, at the same time, receive feedback on the research that members of the IAAEU are pursuing. We were able to gather experts who presented their recent research on how to incentivize workers and the effects of these policies. Among us, Alberto Palermo presented a paper written with Laszlo Goerke and Marco de Pinto (formerly IAAEU) on the welfare effects that arise when competing firms, facing spillover effects, are uninformed about workers’ characteristics. All the presenters were grateful for the remarks and suggestions coming from the attendees.

We are happy with the results that we achieved in organizing the event and would like to thank all the participants again. Exciting comments from the presenters and attendees also made us proud of what we have accomplished. A common claim was “nowadays we do not meet so often and putting all of us together has been really nice”. This what we aimed for, we did it, and will continue doing so!

The program for this past workshop can be found here, whereas, for our future topics, we invite all interested persons to visit our website and participate in the coming events.



Start of the online workshop series with a workshop on “Labor Markets and Migration” at the IAAEU

On Friday, October 30th, 2020, the IAAEU organized a one-day online workshop on “Labor Markets and Migration” in cooperation with the Chair of Personnel Economics at Faculty IV. The workshop met with widespread interest and many researchers from all over Europe wanted to take the opportunity to present their current research. Overall, more than 30 scientists took part in the workshop. Dr. Yuliya Kosyakova from the IAB Nuremberg gave the keynote lecture on "Rational Expectations and Human Capital Accumulation of Immigrants". Further lectures in the workshop were devoted to the topics "Return to Human Capital", "Migration Theories", "Migration Impact on Host Societies" and "Migrant Employment". Fenet Bedaso, a research assistant at the IAAEU and at the Chair of Personnel Economics at Trier University, presented her research on "The Labor Market Integration of Refugees and Other Migrants in Germany". Lively discussions in the plenary not only followed every lecture but also took place during the virtual coffee breaks, which enabled scientists to network in an online format. We thank all participants for the many comments that made the workshop so successful!

The “Labor Markets and Migration” workshop was the first of the online workshop series in the winter semester 2020/21. The IAAEU and the Chair of Personnel Economics would like to maintain the scientific exchange during the corona pandemic. You can find more information about future workshops on our website.



IAAEU virtual in Cologne - a review of the annual conference of the Verein für Socialpolitik

From September 27 to 30, 2020, the annual conference of German-speaking economists, the conference of the Verein für Socialpolitik, took place in a virtual format. Each year these meetings have a different focus; this time the main topic was ‘Gender Economics’. The presentations planned initially as plenary lectures dealt with different aspects of the conference core theme. Manual Bagues from Warwick, for example, spoke about gender quotas in science.

An essential part of the annual meeting of the Verein für Socialpolitik is the open conference, where this year roughly 400 lectures were given in 140 sessions. The papers to be presented were chosen by a selection committee in a competitive process. This year, almost all Economics Ph.D. students of the IAAEU could report on their work. IAAEU staff members were involved in a total of eight of the studies presented at the annual conference. Including other members of Trier University, therefore, almost 3% of all the analyses presented were prepared in the birthplace of Karl Marx or with the participation of researchers working there. This proportion is all the more impressive as there are a good 100 universities in Germany and traditionally many economists from Austria and Switzerland attend the annual conference, as well.

The lectures given by the IAAEU staff from Trier dealt with a variety of issues, especially in the fields of labour and personnel economics. Alberto Palermo and Laszlo Goerke in collaboration with Marco de Pinto (formerly IAAEU), for example, examined how uncertainty about the productivity of managers affects their employment contracts and what repercussions this has on product markets. Konstantin Homolka presented a paper that was written in cooperation with Adrian Chadi (formerly IAAEU, now University of Konstanz). They analyse whether little lies of team colleagues influence the work motivation of other team members. Gabriel Schultze presented the paper titled "Does Relative Age Make Jack a Dull Student? Evidence from Students’ Schoolwork and Playtime". In this study, written jointly with Luca Fumarco (former visiting researcher at the IAAEU and now Tulane University), the relationship between relative age and the time management of students is analysed. Finally, Sven Hartmann presented a study directly related to the main topic of the annual conference. In “Television and Genderstereotypes“, he explores the extent to which gender stereotypes conveyed on television affect attitudes to marriage, divorce, and family planning. A complete list of all presentations by members of the IAAEU’s economic team can be found here.

Following the respective presentations, the analyses were intensively discussed, and many suggestions and remarks useful for improvement were made. Overall, the annual conference of the Verein für Socialpolitik highlighted the importance of the work of economists based in Trier for research in Germany.

The next annual conference of the Verein für Socialpolitik will take place in Regensburg in 2021. The staff of the IAAEU are working on presenting their results comprehensively at this conference and hope that a trip to the Upper Palatinate will take place.



New textbook on personnel economics

The former economic director of the IAAEU has published a new textbook together with three colleagues, who all worked at the institute in the past and have been habilitated in Trier. In "PERSONALÖKONOMIE UND PERSONALPOLITIK - Grundlagen einer evidenzbasierten Praxis" Dieter Sadowski (IAAEU), Bernd Frick and Martin Schneider (both from the University of Paderborn) and Susanne Warning (University of Augsburg) explain and evaluate human resource management patterns from the perspective of employers and employees. The textbook provides an understanding of institutional economic theory formation and empirical research (personnel analysis) - and thus the foundations of evidence-based personnel practice. The three keywords "personnel economics", "personnel policy" and "evidence" illustrate the book's claim.

The textbook is aimed at students in both bachelor's and master's degree programs. Didactically, it is characterized by the fact that in addition to theoretical considerations, numerous empirical studies are presented in their methodology and results. At the end of each chapter there are questions on the application of what has been learned.



Dr. Thomas Klein as Expert Member of the Bundestag Committee for Labor and Social Affairs

The Committee for Labour and Social Affairs of the German Bundestag held a public hearing on 14 September 2020, which, among other things, heard two motions from the parliamentary group DIE LINKE. (BT-Drs. 19/17134) and the parliamentary group BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN (BT-Drs. 19/20585) on working time law. As an individual expert, Dr. Klein was consulted in particular on the judgment of the European Court of Justice of 14 May 2019 in Case C 55/18 Federación de Servicios de Comisiones Obreras (CCOO) v Deutsche Bank SAE, on which he had already published together with Dominik Leist (Die unionsrechtliche Pflicht zur Arbeitszeiterfassung, in: ZESAR 2019, p. 365-372; EU law requires working time recording: Consequences of the ECJ-ruling in the case 'CCOO' for member states and especially Germany, Dispatch No. 19 des Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal). Dr. Klein presented to the Committee his view that there is an immediate need for legislative action as a result of the ruling in Germany. Prior to the hearing, Dr. Klein had already explained in a written statement (Ausschussdrucksache 19(11)746) the individual legal framework conditions under Union law to be observed.



Investigation of the protection of whistleblowers under labour law in a new third-party funded project

Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2019 on the protection of persons who report breaches of Union law, in short, "Whistleblower Protection Directive", is to be transposed into national law by the German legislator by the end of 2021. It is intended to improve the legal protection of whistleblowers and harmonize protection standards. In order to create practical protection, labour law, in particular, is required. For this reason, the IAAEU will examine the need for implementation of the Directive in German law as part of a two-year, externally-funded project of the Fritz Thyssen Stiftung für Wissenschaftsförderung. The focus of the study is on the one hand on how to proceed with the implementation of the Directive in order to anchor whistleblower protection in the regulatory system of German labour law. The second focus in this context is the question of the compatibility of whistleblower protection under labour law with the standards of data and trade secret protection law. The project will run for two years and is funded with a sum of € 40,000.



Alexander Schneider was awarded the 9th Publication Prize 2020 by the Graduate Center of Trier University








Successful first online workshop at the IAAEU
Travel - including by scientists - is currently idle, so scientific exchange across university or even national borders is a challenge. One way out is to create suitable online formats. As one of the first institutions at Trier University, the IAAEU organised a single-day online workshop on Friday, 10 July 2020, in cooperation with the Chair of Personnel Economics at department IV, on the topic of "Job Security and Employment Protection".

The response to the workshop was already high in the early planning phase: Many scientists showed interest in participating in the workshop and presenting their current research. All in all, there were significantly more inquiries than there were slots available for presentations. In the end, more than 50 people had registered to participate in the workshop in order to follow the eight presentations on the topics of job and employment security, protection against dismissal, employee fluctuation and unemployment insurance, and then to have lively discussions in the plenary session. Only the networking and the direct exchange between individual scientists is, unfortunately - for technical reasons - somewhat neglected in an online conference. But it is also clear that this workshop was a successful example of how scientific exchange can take place online when face-to-face meetings are not possible.

Based on the encouraging experiences and the consistently positive feedback, the IAAEU plans to expand the range of such workshops in the coming semester and to organise a series of thematically focused short conferences. Further information on this will soon be available on our homepage. The website of last Friday's workshop is still available here.



Study published on the ability of staff representations in public service to invoke constitutional rights
Alexander Schneider, a research associate in the Legal Team of the IAAEU, has closely researched the ability of staff representations in public service to invoke constitutional rights. The essay, published in this year’s 4th issue of the magazine “Die Personalvertretung” (PersV 2020, pages 124-135), recognizes through the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights to Art. 34 ECHR the impact of international law on the current interpretation of Art.19 paragraph 3 GG by the Federal Court of Justice. Alexander Schneider comes in his study to the conclusion, that staff representations in public service have a partial ability to invoke rights of the German constitution.