New publication in Labour Economics

The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the labour market and economy in many countries since March 2020. Many governments responded to the pandemic by encouraging workers to work from home. As home-based work is expected to continue after the end of the pandemic, a comprehensive assessment of workers' home-based work performance is important for determining future policies.

Yue Huang recently published a new study entitled "Home sweet home: Working from home and employee performance during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK" in the journal Labour Economics in collaboration with Sumit S. Deole, research associate at the Chair of Banking and Finance, University of Trier, and Max Deter, research associate at the Chair of Public Economics, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg. Using representative data from the United Kingdom, they find that the pandemic-related increase in the frequency of working from home is associated with higher self-assessed hourly productivity among employed respondents. This association is weaker for parents with increased homeschooling needs due to school closures during lockdowns. Moreover, the effect heterogeneity analysis highlights the role of crucial job-related characteristics in the baseline association. Looking at the future of home-based work, they also show that workers' recent experiences with working from home and subsequent changes in hourly productivity are closely associated with their desire to work from home in the future.

New publication in Oxford Economic Papers

New study by Laszlo Goerke and Sven Hartmann on "Habit Formation and Trade Unions," published in Oxford Economic Papers.

The assumption that preferences are separable over time, e.g. that the evaluation of today's income does not depend on past income levels, has long since been an important assumption for economic analyses of human behaviour. Empirical findings, however, suggest that an individual’s well-being is not only determined by their current wage, but is also influenced by comparisons with past income. In many cases, employees prefer an increasing wage over time to a decreasing income, even if the sum of all payments is the same in both cases. Accordingly, preferences that are co-determined by comparisons over time have an impact on the behaviour of individuals, as has already been shown for many economically relevant situations. Consequently, they also influence the functioning of labour market institutions.

Building on this insight, Laszlo Goerke and Sven Hartmann examine the extent to which habit preferences change the outcomes of collective bargaining and what the consequences of this are. In their theoretical analysis, the two authors, who work at Trier University and the IAAEU, show that a wage increase today not only leads to a decline in employment, but also implies a negative effect on employees' future utility. This effect thus increases the cost of a wage increase, relative to a wage increase in the future. Habit preferences thus lead to a union favouring an increasing wage level over time, and thus a decreasing employment level, compared to a scenario without habit preferences, with corresponding consequences for collective bargaining. The two authors also show that regulatory changes, such as increases in unemployment benefits, which are only introduced on a transitional basis, have long-term effects on wages and employment due to habit preferences.

The full version of the article can be found here.

Former IAAEU staff member appointed member of the Monetary Policy Council of the National Bank of Poland

We congratulate former IAAEU staff member Joanna Tyrowicz on her appointment as a member of the Monetary Policy Council (Rada Polityki Pieniężnej), a body of the National Bank of Poland, which decides on the Polish interest rates. She was recently elected for a six-year term. We wish her all the best for her new position and that she can continue to act with the typical composure and foresight that she has always demonstrated during her time at our institute!

New publication in Finance Research Letters

Sven Hartmann has recently published a new paper on the topic "Social media marketing for equity crowdfunding: Which posts trigger investment decisions?" in the journal "Finance Research Letters" in cooperation with Lars Hornuf, a former IAAEU staff member, and Maik Eisenbeiß, Professor of Marketing at the University of Bremen.

The study takes a closer look at the communication behaviour of start-ups in social networks during the period of their equity crowdfunding campaigns. In a first step, the authors examine which content is published by start-ups on Facebook and Twitter and distinguish between two types of posts: informative posts, which provide investors with concrete information about the company and the crowdfunding campaign that may be relevant for an investment decision, and persuasive posts, which do not contain information relevant to the investment and are more aimed at encouraging potential investors to make an investment. A descriptive analysis of the data shows that about 82% of all posts examined contain persuasive content. Based on 26,883 individual investment decisions, the authors analyse whether start-ups can influence the success of their equity crowdfunding campaigns through posts on social networks. The results illustrate that both informative content and persuasive posts can have a positive impact on the number of investments, while persuasive posts also increase the average volume of investments.

The full version of the article can be found here.

New publication by staff of IAAEU on the determinants of job satisfaction

Suppose, you join a club or become a member of an organisation which represents your interests. Then one can expect that you are more satisfied than before joining. This basic idea has led to the hypothesis that individuals who are members of a trade union can be expected to exhibit a higher level of job satisfaction than comparable non-members. Strikingly, early empirical analyses of the relationship between trade union membership and job satisfaction for Anglo-Saxon countries have shown the opposite, namely that union members are less satisfied. This apparent puzzle has sparked a debate, which has continued for almost half a century and become livelier again in recent years.
In a paper on Job Satisfaction and Trade Union Membership in Germany forthcoming in Labour Economics, Laszlo Goerke and Yue Huang from the IAAEU and the chair of Personnel Economics investigate the relationship against the background of the local industrial relations system. Thus far, no comprehensive investigation for Germany is available. Goerke and Huang show that there also exists a negative correlation between trade union membership and job satisfaction. However, when taking into account that individuals with certain interests and characteristics have greater incentives to become members of a trade union, the negative correlation cannot be observed any longer. Therefore, it may be the case that employees who have a more critical view of their working life and, accordingly, exhibit lower job satisfaction are more likely to join a trade union to improve the situation at work. However, even if more pessimistic individuals are more likely to belong to a trade union, eventually they should benefit from membership and job satisfaction go up. Why this expectation is not born out by the data is an issue Goerke and Huang cannot resolve in their analysis. Therefore, solving the puzzle requires additional work and further insights will be reported here, once they are available.

A study on job security and job retention in collective agreements and company agreements was published

On 28 June 2022, the Hugo Sinzheimer Institute (HSI) of the Hans Böckler Foundation published a study on job security and job retention in collective agreements and company agreements, in which Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Monika Schlachter and Dr. Thomas Klein were among the contributors. Among other things, the study examines the relationship between collective bargaining autonomy and entrepreneurial freedom, and concludes that, contrary to the point of view sometimes expressed in the literature on this topic, location and employment guarantees as well as investment commitments, can also be agreed upon by collective agreement and, if necessary, enforced through the use of industrial action.

Eva Markowsky as a guest at the IAAEU

The IAAEU is pleased to welcome Eva Markowsky as a guest researcher from June 20th to July 1st 2022. Eva Markowsky is a doctoral student in the final phase of her dissertation at the Department of Social Economics at the University of Hamburg. She is teaching and conducting research on topics related to labour, migration and gender economics under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Miriam Beblo. During her stay at the IAAEU, she is going to present a meta-analysis on the influence of cultural norms and values on women's labour market participation in the economic's colloquium. This is also her topic of research during her stay in Trier. She is also currently working on the influence of language skills on the labour market success of migrants in Germany, as well as on the global connection between gender quotas in parliament and individual attitudes towards gender justice.
Eva Markowsky

TriECON workshop series leaves the virtual world

For many years, the IAAEU has organised workshops on staff members' current research, and has invited researchers from all over Europe to present analyses related to these topic. The workshops provided a forum for intense discussions and the exchange of ideas. With the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, the IAAEU established the TriECON workshop series to facilitate discussions in a virtual world. Each workshop consisted of 6 to 8 online presentations on a particular issue.

On May 20, 2022, the TriECON workshop took place not via ZOOM, but this time we were able to meet on-site again on the seventh floor of the main building on Campus II of Trier University, where the IAAEU is located. The IAAEU's director, Laszlo Goerke, and the current guest researcher, Anthony Lepinteur, had compiled a program of six papers on Health and the Labour Market. The presentations, inter alia, covered issues such as the impact of heat and depression on labour market outcomes, the trade-off between health and wealth accumulation, and the potential role of machine learning for predicting well-being outcomes.

The workshop demonstrated that online meetings can complement 'real events', but cannot fully replace them. Each presentation prompted many questions and comments and was followed by a lively discussion. A quick request to speak up solved all communication problems, while no headset to be replaced or video conferencing program to be started again. Academic exchange at its best is back. A fine dinner and a short tour of Trier would not have been feasible in a virtual world either. Needless to say that even the return to an on-site workshop did not allow the participants to ignore the pandemic; they still had to wear face masks.

We look forward to the next 'real life' event in the TriECON workshop series in the fall of 2022.

New DFG Research Project on the Topic: "The right to adequate remuneration for solo-entrepreneurs”

In April, the “Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft – DFG” (German Research Foundation) approved funding for a German-Austrian research project in the D-A-CH Lead Agency Process on the topic "The right to adequate remuneration for solo-entrepreneurs”. The project leaders are Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Monika Schlachter and Dr. Thomas Klein (both working at the IAAEU), in cooperation with Dr. Karin Lukas from the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Fundamental and Human Rights in Vienna.
The project aims to take a closer look at the situation of the solo-entrepreneurs, who, due to their weak negotiating position, are unable to negotiate appropriate terms of contract with their contractual partners in order to protect themselves from labour exploitation and to achieve an adequate standard of living. For this purpose, international and European human rights law standards, in relation to the rights of solo-entrepreneurs and their implementation in Austrian and German law, will be analysed, and possible tensions between international obligations and EU Law will be highlighted. The project focuses on four objectives:
  1. Identifying the international and European human rights obligations of states to protect the solo-entrepreneurs and possible approaches to prevent their exploitation
  2. Analyzing the implementation of international human rights obligations to protect the solo-entrepreneurs at national level in Austria and Germany
  3. Assessing the implementation of international human rights obligations in line with EU Law
  4. Developing targeted legal recommendations to improve the situation of solo-entrepreneurs in accordance with international human rights and EU law
The project is scheduled to last two years and is expected to start in early 2023.

14th Workshop on Labour Economics (WLE) at the IAAEU – Successfully completed!

Like last year, the Workshop on Labour Economics 2022 took place online. The annual workshop organised by the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU), in cooperation with the Chair of Personnel Economics at the University of Trier, took place on April 7th and 8th, 2022, for the 14th time. Excellent presentations by the many participants, combined with lively discussions and intense scientific exchange, made the workshop a successful and well-regarded scientific event in the field of labour economics again this year.
More than 150 scientists and guests from all over the world were registered for the conference. A total of 68 researchers presented their current scientific findings, making this year's event the largest WLE ever. 26 PhD students had the opportunity to have their work discussed by experienced researchers. In this way, valuable feedback could be given to the next generation of researchers. The two-day workshop followed the same idea as last year, namely promoting scientific exchange between juniors and seniors in particular.
In eight sessions and four parallel sessions each, the lectures dealt with a wide variety of topics in an international context. In addition to the core topics of personnel and labour economics, the range of topics also included closely related disciplines and research areas, such as migration economics, gender economics, and health economics.
The research associates at the IAAEU and the Chair of Personnel Economics at the University of Trier also presented their latest results. Fenet Bedaso reported occupational segregation and the wage gap between men and women in Ethiopia. Marco Clemens presented his project on bonus payments and job satisfaction in Germany. Björn Becker talked about his research findings on union membership and life satisfaction in Germany. Dr. Yue Huang introduced her research results on the topic of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. We want to thank all participants of this year's Workshop on Labor Economics and look forward to seeing you again, hopefully in person, next year in Trier.

Dr. Anthony Lepinteur visiting the IAAEU

The IAAEU is pleased to welcome Dr. Anthony Lepinteur as a visiting researcher. Dr. Anthony Lepinteur is a Research Scientist at the Department of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences at the University of Luxembourg and will be active at the Institute from April to June. His main research interest lies in labour economics, public economics, genomics and the economics of subjective states. He recently published a number of articles on the effects of greater job insecurity on workers’ behaviours and outcomes. During his research stay at the IAAEU, he will give a talk in the economic colloquium on "Health Inequalities and the Labour Market: Causal Evidence from a Gene-Environment Setup."
Anthony Lepinteur
Podcast Labour Law - New episode: No wages without work - operational risk in the Corona lockdown

What actually happens when an employer is temporarily unable to employ his employees due to a Corona lockdown? Can employees still demand to be given their wages by their employer? The Federal Labour Court answered this question in a recent verdict. Thomas Klein and Georg Kuhs took a closer look at this judgement, which is also relevant for legal exams, and present it to you in the 5th episode of the podcast.
TriECON Workshop on Trade Unions and Migration

The increase in the number of international migrants in high-income countries over the past decades has led to concern about how trade unions approach migrant workers. Hence, the IAAEU, in cooperation with the Chair of Personnel Economics at Trier University, organised a one-day online workshop on the topic of Trade Unions and Migration on December 17, 2021. Eight scientific projects were presented, and around 20 researchers and guests participated in the workshop. The workshop offered a virtual platform to maintain lively scientific exchange and networking among junior and senior economists and other social scientists even during the corona pandemic.
The workshop included qualitative and quantitative studies that examine the trade union strategies regarding immigrant workers in different European countries. The immigration policy and international migration flow were also investigated. Fenet Bedaso, a research associate at the IAAEU and the Chair of Personnel Economics at Trier University, presented a joint research project with Uwe Jirjahn and Laszlo Goerke on the topic of "Does Integration into Society and Workplace Play a Moderating Role?". She discussed that immigrants are less likely to join trade unions than local workers in her presentation. She also emphasised that social integration into society and workplace integration through the works council positively influence the trade union membership of immigrants in Germany.
In addition, several aspects, such as trade union wage effects, labour protection, and ethnic identity, were examined in relation to immigrants in the labour market. After each presentation, participants actively engaged in questions and comments, which enhanced exchanging ideas and networking during the workshop. We thank the speakers and participants for interesting presentations, lively discussions, and constructive comments that made the workshop successful. For further information, the complete program of the workshop can be found here.

Podcast on Labour Law - New Episode: The Influence of EU Law on Entitlements to Paid Annual Leave

Jana Hagenmüller and Dominik Leist are adressing the heritability of entitlements to paid annual leave in the new episode of our podcast on labour law. They will also be taking a look at the relationship between national labour and inheritance law and will shed light onto the demands of EU law, which the EuGH has decided upon throughout several preliminary rulings.

Presentation on "Gender aspects in the Platform work"

We would like to invite you to the presentation on "Gender aspects in platform work“, held by Dr. Isabell Hensel. The presentation will be taking place on Wednesday the 8th of December, from 6:15 pm until around 08:00 pm. Due to the recent developments in the Corona pandemic it will exclusively take place via Zoom.
Platform work has influenced the world of work in a variety of ways, and has most recently taken form in Germany’s federal labour court with the so called "Crowd-worker-decree". In the area of legal sciences, discussions on this topic mainly focus on the legal status of Crowd-, Gig- or Cloud-workers. In contrast, research on gender specific effects of platform work is still rare, although especially U.S. American literature has acknowledged many issues involving gender, like salary differences between men and women, admission requirements, contract binding pressure, sexual harassment, physical assault as well as discriminating algorithms.
Dr. Isabell Hensel is an academic employee at the European University Viadrina in Frankfurt (Oder), where she does research in the field of labour law 4.0, platform economy, sociology of law and gender studies. In light of her work at the expert commission of the federal German parliament, she has studied the relevance of gender equality in platform work. She will share some results of her work in her presentation. To better plan the event we would like to ask you to register via email (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) beforehand. You can find the brochure for the event here.

VfS Presentation Prize 2021 for Jonas Feld and Sven Hartmann

Due to their presentations at the annual conference of the European Society for Population Economics, Jonas Feld and Sven Hartmann were each awarded with a presentation prize from the Verein für Socialpolitik. The Association supports young, international economists by granting bonuses of 500€ for presentations at esteemed international conferences.

TriECON Workshop on Gender Inequality in Labour Markets

Although the traditional idea of the distribution of labour between the sexes is losing its significance in today's society, systematic disparities between men and women still persist on the job market, making themselves noticeable through income inequality and limited career options for women for example. Examining these disparities was the top priority of the tenth online workshop of the TriECON Series, with 48 international researchers attending. Nine researchers from eight different countries presented their research, with the overall aim to facilitate and promote the exchange of research ideas and concepts.
You can find the entire programme here. For more information on the TriECON Workshop Series, please take a look at our website.

Lecture "Artificial Intelligence in the Workplace"

On November 9th 2021, an interdisciplinary conference on "Artificial Intelligence in the Working World", with Lothar Schröder, Prof. Dr. Katrin Muehlfeld-Kerstan and Prof. Dr. Benjamin Raue, took place at the IAAEU. The conference was held using a hybrid format, enabling 25 participants to take part in person and also giving 30 more nationwide participants, and even a few from Austria, the opportunity to attend via Zoom. Lothar Schröder, Prof. Dr. Katrin Muehlfeld-Kerstan and Prof. Dr. Benjamin Raue did an excellent job at highlighting the subject from a political, economical and a legal standpoint. Their introductory presentations created a foundation for subsequent interdisciplinary discussion.
A summary and the presentations can be found here.

Commemoration as "Doctor et Professor honoris causa" for Monika Schlachter

On November 4th 2021, Prof. Dr. Dres. h.c. Monika Schlachter was presented with an honorary degree, at a ceremony held in the Aula Magna of the University of Pécs. The laudator emphasized the positive impact of her commemoration on the Faculty of Law at Pécs, and thereby prized her wide ranging research contributions to the field of European and international labour law, her succesful international projects and her long-standing cooperation with the research team at the University of Pècs. With this, for the second time already, Prof. Schlachter has been honored with the title of "Doctor et Professor honoris causa".

Podcast on Labour Law - New episode on vacation entitlement under the influence of the EU

In the new episode of our podcast, Jana Hagenmüller and Dominik Leist will be taking a look at questions related to the expiration and compensation of vacation entitlement for those with a long term illness - an issue which has sustained many changes in the past years due to the EU.

Artificial Intelligence in the Working World

The IAAEU would like to invite you to the conference on
"Artificial Intelligence in the Working World"
on November 9th 2021, from 4:00 pm until 7:00 pm

We aim to make room for researchers, teachers and students to discuss this increasingly relevant topic in an interdisciplinary manner.
We are looking forward to the three presentations held by renowned speakers, who will be illustrating the subject from a political, economical and a legal standpoint.
Lothar Schröder was a member of the "Enquete-Commission" for artificial intelligence in the German Bundestag and has worked on the national board of the United Services Trade Union as a representative for information technology and telecommunication. He has written and published a variety of books on digitalisation and transformation processes in the working world. At the conference, he will present a self-developed model to demonstrate corporal regulation of AI-operations.
Prof. Dr. Katrin Muehlfeld-Kerstan teaches in the field of Management, Organisation and Human Resources at the University of Trier. Among other things, her research is dedicated to the effects of digitalisation on organisational structures and processes, and in her presentation she will address the application of AI in human resource work, reporting exciting results of her research.
Prof. Dr. Benjamin Raue is Chair for Private Law, Intellectual Property Law, and Law of the Information Society and the director of the Institute of Law and Digitalisation at the University of Trier. He studies the regulation of AI and will be focusing on the current regulation proposal brought forward by the European Commission.

To find more information, please click here or email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Series of articles on "Case Processing in Labour Law“

Dr. Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist set the upcoming series "Case processing in labour law“, appearing in the current edition of "Zeitschrift für das Juristische Studium", in motion with a new contribution titled "Collateral third-party-effects of fundamental constitutional rights and industrial action rights in light of strike mobilisation at work". This series is primarily directed towards students with a focal point on labour law, and accompanies the IAAEU’s podcast on labour law by examining the cases brought up markedly. The series raises awareness and trains structural thinking, making the application of abstract knowledge on a tangible case easier. This article specifically illustrates how to approach cases and find solutions, which scarcely comes up in decision rulings or in practice cases. Subsequently, the series "Case Processing in Labour Law“ can be seen as a self-initiated method to successfully prepare for examinations in the field of labour law.

One-year Scholarship at Jesus College Oxford for Sven Hartmann

Sven Hartmann was selected for a one-year scholarship at Jesus College Oxford. Between October 2021 and June 2022 Sven will be working on several of his own projects at Oxford. Additionally, he is taking part in research seminars run by the department of Economics.

The third-party effect of the trade union's freedom of association under Article 9 (3) sentence 1 of the Basic Law on the employer's domiciliary right

On June 18th 2021 Mr. Alexander Schneider successfully defended his thesis on the subject of "The third-party effect of the trade union's freedom of association under Article 9 (3) sentence 1 of the Basic Law on the employer's domiciliary right", by means of a disputation. Mr. Schneider wrote his thesis while working as a research assistant at the IAAEU (3/2018-4/2021), under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter. The dissertation will soon be published with Nomos-Publishers.

Monika Schlachter publishes new Article on the European Social Charta

The European Social Charter (ESC), an international treaty formulated by the Council of Europe, has been a central means to ensure social rights in Europe since 1961. In 1996, the Charter was extended and reas-sembled by the newly revised ESC, which was now also ratified by Germany.
To celebrate these anniversaries, Monika Schlachter, the former vice president of the European Committee of Social Rights (ESCR) who was engaged with the supervision of the ratified states’ compliance towards ESCR obligations, has published an article on the ESC. The latter focuses on the role of the ESC in pro-tecting social rights in Europe, as well as the approaches to supervision of these rights and Germany’s role in the continuous modernisation of Europe’s protection of social rights, becoming increasingly important in light of recent events. The article has been posted on the homepage of the Council of Europe and is available to download both in English and in German.

Bob Hepple Award for Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter

During this year’s conference held by the Labour Law Research Network and scheduled for June 2021 (University of Warsaw/online), the „Bob Hepple Award for Lifetime Achievements in Labour Law“ will be presented for the fifth time. This year’s winners are Professor Professor Monika Schlachter englisch (Universität Trier/IAAEU) and Professor Matthew Finkin (University of Illinois, USA).
The Labour Law Research Network, founded in 2011, will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary this year. The Network is currently an association of 79 different institutes and centers world wide, bound together by their independent research in areas of labour law. Besides research, promoting the exchange of ideas and knowledge is a top priority, especially in regards to international research cooperations on current and global issues. Efforts are expressed through the aforementioned conference, which takes place biannually, with participants from the Network itself and also with junior researchers presenting their results and opening up discussions.
The Bob Hepple Award is named after the renowned British post-war representative of comparative law in the field of labour law. Following the statutes of the association, the award is presented every two years in appreciation of an exceptional life-long endeavour in the field of labour law. Each member of the association is entitled to recommend nominees. The nomination committee then chooses a figure, whose work has reached significant acclamation in no less than the past twenty years and signifies this figures capability as a representative of the field. Previous award winners have been colleagues from Great Britain, Canada, Italy, Japan, the USA and Sweden; in Germany lastly Professor Manfred Weiss (2015, University of Frankfurt).
This year’s award winner, Professor Monika Schlachter, teaches in the department of law at the University of Trier and is head of the IAAEU’s Judicial Department. She has gained acclaim with a number of contributions to European and international labour law, as well as through comparative labour law and international labour law.

Honorary Doctorate in Economics for Prof. Dr. Uschi Backes-Gellner

On June 21st 2021, Prof. Dr. Uschi Backes-Gellner from the University of Zurich, was presented with an honorary doctor's degree in economic and social sciences, at the Eberhard Karls University in Tübingen. With 140 honorary doctor's degrees from the faculty since 1880, she is the first woman since 1924 to have received an honorary degree, out of four women in total. Prof. Dr. Uschi Backes-Gellner obtained her doctoral degree in Trier, where she also acquired her habilitation. Prior to 1994, she was an academic councillor at the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union. Click here to find more information.

New Realease on Labour Dispute law

In June 2021, the handbook on Labour Dispute law, written by Tino Frieling, Matthias Jacobs and Christopher Krois as well as Dr. Thomas Klein - englisch, has been issued by C.H. Beck publishers. This handbook provides an up-to-date, compact and also scientific display of Labour Dispute law. In his contributions, Dr. Klein illustrates the European and international foundations of labour dispute rights as well as issues related to public official strikes. More information can be found here.

Sixth TriECON Workshop on Inequality and Polarisation

The OECD’s annual Employment Outlook 2017 sheds light on the growing polarisation of wage and income distribution - employment rates in lower and higher qualified sectors of work are increasing, whereas the proportion of jobs in mid-qualified sectors is decreasing. In answer to this, the sixth workshop of the TriECON Series brought forward topics like inequality and polarisation. In total, more than 20 researchers took part in the workshop. Therefore, the TriECON online conference represents an important virtual opportunity to maintain scientific exchange, even during the pandemic.
The presentations during this workshop were primarily dedicated to the causes and consequences of this growing inequality and job polarisation. One presented study analysed the effect of migration on the polarising pattern in the employment structure. Another study investigated whether changes in labor market institutions (trade unions, minimum wage etc.) have an effect on the structure of employment. In addition, one project focussed on the discrepancy between acquired and requested qualifications in a time of recession. On top of that, other issues like wage negotiations of employees, digitalisation and offshoring were discussed in the context of job polarisation. The presentations and their results once again underlined the need for adequate policies to counteract the polarisation of wage and income distribution. You can find the complete program of the workshop here.
We would like to thank all participants for their interesting presentations and numerous comments and suggestions, making the workshop very successful!
For more information on the TriECON Workshop Series please visit our website.

The IAAEU’s new Podcast on Current Labour Law Decisions

As of now the IAAEU will be releasing a podcast on labour law, where particularly interesting decisions and rulings in the world of labour law will be discussed and presented didactically. This offer is produced in German language and mainly directed towards students in advanced semesters in attempt to widen their perspective on problems and questions related to labour law, as well as feed knowledge on specific cases. In the first episode, Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist will be discussing the decision on strike mobilisation on company premises, made by the German Federal Labour Court in 2018 (Urteil v. 20.11.2018 – 1 AZR 189/17).
The podcast is produced by a team of research and graduate assistants from the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union and the University of Trier. As of now, episodes will be available at www.iaaeu.de/podcast and soon to be on conventional platforms as well.

TriECON Workshop on COVID-19 and Labour Markets

The spread of the COVID-19 Pandemic has had a considerable impact on the labour market and economy of many European countries since March 2020. Many employees now work from home due to restrictions imposed by the government. Some sectors were forced to decommission their ongoing course of business permanently. Subsequently, many researchers are investigating the effects that the COVID-19 Pandemic may have on the labour market. In order to facilitate a deeper look into this issue, the IAAEU, along with the Chair of Personnel Economics, has hosted a one-day workshop on the topic of "COVID-19 and Labour Markets", held on May 7th, 2021. More than 30 scientists and other interested extern guests took part.
During the workshop, eight scientific papers were presented and discussed. Presentations ad-dressed topics such as "home office, work performance and well-being of employees", "autono-my during the COVID-19 Pandemic", and "re-opening of schools and the spread of the Pandem-ic". Dr. Yue Huang, a researcher at the IAAEU and the Chair of Personnel Economics of the Trier University, presented her research on "Home Sweet Home: Working from Home and Employee Performance during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the UK". She demonstrated that employee per-formance in the UK, measured by self-reported productivity and working hours, is positively cor-related with the frequency of working from home. Many employees are in favour of home office even after the Pandemic. These results are politically relevant and highlight the need to create a suitable regulatory setting for the future establishment of the home office. Each presentation was followed by a lively discussion between presenters and the audience, which provided all par-ticipants with networking opportunities despite the online format. The successful online event also reflects the topic of home office at the workshop.
We would like to thank all presenters and participants for their excellent presentations and con-tributions to the discussion. You can find the program of the workshop here, as well as more in-formation on the TriECON Workshop Series in the Summer Semester of 2021 on our homepage.

Interdisciplinary Workshop at the IAAEU

On the 20th of April 2021, the interdisciplinary online workshop "Digitalisation in Employment Relations", organised by the IAAEU, took place. Guest speakers from the field of law were Prof. Dr. Daniel Ulber and Ass. Jur. Adrian Bromme, along with Prof Dr. Sabine Pfeiffer and Dr. Ulrich Zierahn as guest speakers from the economics workgroup. A large group of attendees, namely the directors of the institute, as well as the research assistants of both workgroups and other attendees, partly from the University of Trier participated in the workshop.
Dr. Ulrich Zierahn commenced with a presentation evaluating the "Effects of Digitalisation on the Working World" from an economic perspective. This was followed up by Ass. Jur. Adrian Bromme, who talked about the legal conditions of further training of employees in response to changes in activity profiles as a result of digitalisation, titled "Digitalisation as a Challenge for Personnel Trainings".
In the second part of the workshop, Prof. Dr. Sabine Pfeiffer assessed from a sociological perspective the progression of digitalisation in the past decades, in a presentation titled "A decade 4,0 Discourse - a Mid-Term Evaluation of the Digital Shift in Work Life". The workshop was concluded by Prof. Dr. Daniel Ulber, who lectured about the topic of "Challenges of Digitalisation for Working Hour Laws“, specifically focussing on the subject of removing of boundaries between work and leisure due to technical possibilities through digitalisation. Each presentation was followed up by animated discussions between lecturers and attendees. Both the presentations and the concluding discussions lead to interesting insights into the contrasting areas of research.
The organisers would like to thank all lecturers and attendees for their contribution and involvement.

Successful 13th Workshop on Labour Economics (WLE) at the IAAEU

On March 25-26, the IAAEU hosted the 13th edition of the Workshop on Labour Economics (WLE). Though no one at IAAEU had any experience with hosting such large online conferences, "Everything went surprisingly well" as Jonas Feld put it, head of organization. Usually, the WLE takes place on the premises of the IAAEU, on Trier University's Campus II. But this year, for the first time, it was converted into a virtual format.
The opportunity to attend a conference even with current travel restrictions explains why there were such a large number of attendees compared to previous versions of the annually held WLE. More than 130 people had registered for the event, as many as never before. Together they listened to 57 presentations listed on the program this year, also a record high.
Another reason behind the gradually growing interest in the WLE is surely the broad spectrum of topics touched on, and the increasing scientific reputation of this conference. Several presentations depicted Germany's job market situation, specifically focusing on the general development of wages, as well as the differences in wages between the public and private sector and the influence of the Hartz-reforms. Other presentations featured topics such as temporary employment, education, or job satisfaction – many also from a cross-country comparing perspective. Meeting the interests of many participants, presentations and subsequent discussions also acknowledged subjects such as the influence of digitalization or gender pay gaps between women and men.
Similar to previous years, the main emphasis was put on the research interests of the employees at the IAAEU and the employees of the chair of personnel economics at Trier University: There were many lectures on the current standing and the influence of trade unions and also on the labor market integration of immigrants. To conclude the conference's first day, Professor Guido Friebel from Goethe-University Frankfurt gave a keynote lecture on personnel economics experiments, highlighting associated methodological challenges.
The 2021 WLE Best Paper Award was conferred to Yajna Govind, a doctoral student at Paris School of Economics, for her job market paper entitled "Is naturalization a passport for better labor market integration? Evidence from a quasi-experimental setting ".
As summed up by Jonas Feld, representing the IAAEU, "the interest in our workshop is increasing year by year. We are delighted to have met these growing needs by hosting a virtual conference even in these particularly unusual times." Nevertheless, the WLE-Team hopes to welcome all attendees in person at the premises of IAAEU at Campus II from next year on again.

Flight delay compensation despite a strike - Aspects of labour law and fundamental rights of a consumer law issue

According to the European Flight Compensation Regulation, passengers are entitled to compensation in the event of cancellations and delays. However, the claim does not apply if the air carrier can prove that the cancellation is caused by "extraordinary circumstances" which could not have been avoided even if all reasonable measures had been taken. The question of whether these "extraordinary circumstances" also include strikes by airline staff, which is extremely relevant in practice, is judged differently by the German courts. In any case, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) did not classify a wildcat strike by employees of an airline (TUIfly) as an "extraordinary circumstance". Dr. Thomas Klein has examined the issue in detail in a recent article entitled "Compensation claims under the Flight Compensation Regulation in the event of strike-related cancellation or delay". In the first part of the study, he develops typical case groups taking into account the law on industrial disputes and points out that, the air carriers' staff strikes, contrary to the former case law of the Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof), do not generally lead to the loss of compensation. In the second part of the study, he examines the fundamental rights dimension of the problem, which has not yet been adequately captured and appreciated by the case law, and comes to the conclusion that fundamental rights considerations also do not force the elimination of compensation. The article was published in issue 1/2021 of the European Journal of Business Law (EuZW 2021, 23-29).

TriECON Workshop on Media Economics

Media has the potential to influence the behaviour of people and of companies in a large variety of ways. Especially in the digital age, where new technology is close at hand and media is omnipresent, on mobile phones for example. Consequent implications were the main focus of the fourth online workshop of the TriECON series this winter semester. The aim of the event was not only to acquaint scientists with one another, but also to further motivate the exchange of research ideas between them. Thirty participants from all over the world took part in the TriECON Workshop.
Nine scientific papers on the subject of "Media Economics" were presented and discussed during the course of the workshop. In part, some studies explored the influence of media on voting behavior using German and Russian data. The workshop also set out to question the link between the language in which mass media covers political topics and between the political preferences of readers. Another study analyzed the effects of crime related media coverage on the attitude of civilians towards immigration. Click here for a full programme of the Media Economics Workshop.
You can find additional information on the TriECON Workshop Series on this website.

New publication: European Labour and Social Law

In December, the second edition of the handbook on European labor and social law edited by Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter and Prof. Dr. Hans Michael Heinig was published in the Nomos series Enzyklopädie Europarecht (Volume 7). Among the authors of the volume is Dr. Thomas Klein, who edited the chapter on European posting law.

IAAEU director is one of the most frequently publishing business economists

The paper „Wirtschaftswoche“ released in December 2020 their ranking of the most publishing researchers in the field of business administration. For this analysis, publications of business economists who are working at universities and research institutions in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were recorded. The web portal "Forschungsmonitoring" serves as the data source for the ranking. In addition to the number of publications, the reputation of the approximately 850 journals included in the analysis was also taken into account of the evaluation.
Laszlo Goerke, Director of the economic department at the IAAEU and Professor of Personnel Economics at the Trier University, is among the top 4% of all business economists in terms of research in the 'Lifetime Achievement' category, in which all previous publications are considered. Other colleagues from Trier are also high represented in this category as well as those limited to publications from recent years or younger researchers (further information can be found here).
While rankings such as that of the „Wirtschaftswoche“ capture research achievements and make them comparable, the evaluation also shows how much the rankings are determined by the quality assessments of the journals which are included. The above-mentioned ranking of the director of the IAAEU is based on the quality assessment of the German Academic Association of Business Research, the so-called "Jourqual 3.0 list". Based on this list, Laszlo Goerke is ranked 129th in the 'Lifetime Achievement' category, which includes approximately 4000 people. However, if the weighting used by the paper "Handelsblatt" in a 2014 evaluation is taken as a basis, then the director of the IAAEU is one of the most frequently publishing business economists in Germany and reaches the 26th place. These differences make it clear that rankings for measuring research performance are only one indicator, albeit not an unimportant one, with which the contribution to the advancement of knowledge can be illustrated.

Third Workshop of the TriECON Series, regarding co-determination, 11th of December 2020

Employee involvement and co-determination is indispensable to the system of industrial relations in Germany. The gradual decline in the share of firms with a works council, as well as employees represented by such a council, along with an increase in alternative forms of employee representation, continuously create challenges for areas of practice and research. Hence, the third virtual workshop of the TriECON Series taking place December 11th, attended to these matters.
Presented research projects provided insight into various topics. On the one hand, determinants for the existence of works councils were examined, an example being businesses that are only partly versus fully run by family owners. On the other hand, projects touched on the effects of works councils on several company concerning aspects, as well as the link between collective agreements, for example for corporate health care regulations. Another notable project presented at the workshop, concerned a less often used form of employee involvement, namely using round tables voluntarily, which goes along with increased productivity in the long run. In the keynote lecture, Professor John Addison (University of South Carolina) expressed, that not only the presence of a works council, but also this council’s approach, can determine a corporation’s survivability in the market. In total, the workshop outlined that researchers are dealing with evermore diverse research questions, going hand in hand with differential assessments of co-determination. Thereby, research projects contributed to the understanding of co-determination, its versatility, mechanisms and adaptivity in today’s world.
In addition to the speakers, many guests attended the workshop virtually. Apart from outstanding presentations, the workshop was characterized by a first-rate discussion, where not only established researchers but also junior researchers could participate. Visit the following link to find more information on the TriECON Workshop.

Application and implementation of fundamental rights and protection of fundamental rights in the European multi-level system

As a result of the "right to forget" decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court, constitutional case law on the protection of fundamental rights in the multi-level system and on the relationship between fundamental rights under Union law and fundamental rights under national law has undergone a considerable realignment. In a recent article, Dr. Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist have dealt with the far-reaching consequences of these decisions both for the constitutional court's review standards in general and for labor law shaped by union and fundamental rights in particular. They conclude that these decisions have explosive power, especially in the area of collective labor law. The study was published in the current issue of the Zeitschrift für Europäisches Sozial- und Arbeitsrecht (ZESAR) on pp. 449-458.

At the IAAEU, the TriECON virtual events continued with an online workshop on “Organizations, Incentives and Performance Pay”

From “restrictions” arise opportunities! Meeting researchers with shared interests and creating new networks was not easy this year. However, the IAAEU, in cooperation with the Chair of Personnel Economics at Faculty IV, hosted another one-day virtual workshop. The workshop took place on Friday, November 20th, and it was a platform to let people meet without traveling. This time we offered a virtual room on the topic “Organizations, Incentives and Performance Pay”.
As per usual of the TriECON virtual events, including this time, we had two goals. We wanted to create an active discussion about a central research topic while, at the same time, receive feedback on the research that members of the IAAEU are pursuing. We were able to gather experts who presented their recent research on how to incentivize workers and the effects of these policies. Among us, Alberto Palermo presented a paper written with Laszlo Goerke and Marco de Pinto (formerly IAAEU) on the welfare effects that arise when competing firms, facing spillover effects, are uninformed about workers’ characteristics. All the presenters were grateful for the remarks and suggestions coming from the attendees.
We are happy with the results that we achieved in organizing the event and would like to thank all the participants again. Exciting comments from the presenters and attendees also made us proud of what we have accomplished. A common claim was “nowadays we do not meet so often and putting all of us together has been really nice”. This what we aimed for, we did it, and will continue doing so!
The program for this past workshop can be found here, whereas, for our future topics, we invite all interested persons to visit our website and participate in the coming events.

Start of the online workshop series with a workshop on “Labor Markets and Migration” at the IAAEU

On Friday, October 30th, 2020, the IAAEU organized a one-day online workshop on “Labor Markets and Migration” in cooperation with the Chair of Personnel Economics at Faculty IV. The workshop met with widespread interest and many researchers from all over Europe wanted to take the opportunity to present their current research. Overall, more than 30 scientists took part in the workshop. Dr. Yuliya Kosyakova from the IAB Nuremberg gave the keynote lecture on "Rational Expectations and Human Capital Accumulation of Immigrants". Further lectures in the workshop were devoted to the topics "Return to Human Capital", "Migration Theories", "Migration Impact on Host Societies" and "Migrant Employment". Fenet Bedaso, a research assistant at the IAAEU and at the Chair of Personnel Economics at Trier University, presented her research on "The Labor Market Integration of Refugees and Other Migrants in Germany". Lively discussions in the plenary not only followed every lecture but also took place during the virtual coffee breaks, which enabled scientists to network in an online format. We thank all participants for the many comments that made the workshop so successful!
The “Labor Markets and Migration” workshop was the first of the online workshop series in the winter semester 2020/21. The IAAEU and the Chair of Personnel Economics would like to maintain the scientific exchange during the corona pandemic. You can find more information about future workshops on our website.

IAAEU virtual in Cologne - a review of the annual conference of the Verein für Socialpolitik

From September 27 to 30, 2020, the annual conference of German-speaking economists, the conference of the Verein für Socialpolitik, took place in a virtual format. Each year these meetings have a different focus; this time the main topic was ‘Gender Economics’. The presentations planned initially as plenary lectures dealt with different aspects of the conference core theme. Manual Bagues from Warwick, for example, spoke about gender quotas in science.
An essential part of the annual meeting of the Verein für Socialpolitik is the open conference, where this year roughly 400 lectures were given in 140 sessions. The papers to be presented were chosen by a selection committee in a competitive process. This year, almost all Economics Ph.D. students of the IAAEU could report on their work. IAAEU staff members were involved in a total of eight of the studies presented at the annual conference. Including other members of Trier University, therefore, almost 3% of all the analyses presented were prepared in the birthplace of Karl Marx or with the participation of researchers working there. This proportion is all the more impressive as there are a good 100 universities in Germany and traditionally many economists from Austria and Switzerland attend the annual conference, as well.
The lectures given by the IAAEU staff from Trier dealt with a variety of issues, especially in the fields of labour and personnel economics. Alberto Palermo and Laszlo Goerke in collaboration with Marco de Pinto (formerly IAAEU), for example, examined how uncertainty about the productivity of managers affects their employment contracts and what repercussions this has on product markets. Konstantin Homolka presented a paper that was written in cooperation with Adrian Chadi (formerly IAAEU, now University of Konstanz). They analyse whether little lies of team colleagues influence the work motivation of other team members. Gabriel Schultze presented the paper titled "Does Relative Age Make Jack a Dull Student? Evidence from Students’ Schoolwork and Playtime". In this study, written jointly with Luca Fumarco (former visiting researcher at the IAAEU and now Tulane University), the relationship between relative age and the time management of students is analysed. Finally, Sven Hartmann presented a study directly related to the main topic of the annual conference. In “Television and Genderstereotypes“, he explores the extent to which gender stereotypes conveyed on television affect attitudes to marriage, divorce, and family planning. A complete list of all presentations by members of the IAAEU’s economic team can be found here.
Following the respective presentations, the analyses were intensively discussed, and many suggestions and remarks useful for improvement were made. Overall, the annual conference of the Verein für Socialpolitik highlighted the importance of the work of economists based in Trier for research in Germany.
The next annual conference of the Verein für Socialpolitik will take place in Regensburg in 2021. The staff of the IAAEU are working on presenting their results comprehensively at this conference and hope that a trip to the Upper Palatinate will take place.

New textbook on personnel economics

The former economic director of the IAAEU has published a new textbook together with three colleagues, who all worked at the institute in the past and have been habilitated in Trier. In "PERSONALÖKONOMIE UND PERSONALPOLITIK - Grundlagen einer evidenzbasierten Praxis" Dieter Sadowski (IAAEU), Bernd Frick and Martin Schneider (both from the University of Paderborn) and Susanne Warning (University of Augsburg) explain and evaluate human resource management patterns from the perspective of employers and employees. The textbook provides an understanding of institutional economic theory formation and empirical research (personnel analysis) - and thus the foundations of evidence-based personnel practice. The three keywords "personnel economics", "personnel policy" and "evidence" illustrate the book's claim.


  The textbook is aimed at students in both bachelor's and master's degree programs. Didactically, it is characterized by the fact that in addition to theoretical considerations, numerous empirical studies are presented in their methodology and results. At the end of each chapter there are questions on the application of what has been learned.

Dr. Thomas Klein as Expert Member of the Bundestag Committee for Labor and Social Affairs

The Committee for Labour and Social Affairs of the German Bundestag held a public hearing on 14 September 2020, which, among other things, heard two motions from the parliamentary group DIE LINKE. (BT-Drs. 19/17134) and the parliamentary group BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN (BT-Drs. 19/20585) on working time law. As an individual expert, Dr. Klein was consulted in particular on the judgment of the European Court of Justice of 14 May 2019 in Case C 55/18 Federación de Servicios de Comisiones Obreras (CCOO) v Deutsche Bank SAE, on which he had already published together with Dominik Leist (Die unionsrechtliche Pflicht zur Arbeitszeiterfassung, in: ZESAR 2019, p. 365-372; EU law requires working time recording: Consequences of the ECJ-ruling in the case 'CCOO' for member states and especially Germany, Dispatch No. 19 des Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal). Dr. Klein presented to the Committee his view that there is an immediate need for legislative action as a result of the ruling in Germany. Prior to the hearing, Dr. Klein had already explained in a written statement (Ausschussdrucksache 19(11)746) the individual legal framework conditions under Union law to be observed.

Alexander Schneider was awarded the 9th Publication Prize 2020 by the Graduate Center of Trier University

Investigation of the protection of whistleblowers under labour law in a new third-party funded project

Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2019 on the protection of persons who report breaches of Union law, in short, "Whistleblower Protection Directive", is to be transposed into national law by the German legislator by the end of 2021. It is intended to improve the legal protection of whistleblowers and harmonize protection standards. In order to create practical protection, labour law, in particular, is required. For this reason, the IAAEU will examine the need for implementation of the Directive in German law as part of a two-year, externally-funded project of the Fritz Thyssen Stiftung für Wissenschaftsförderung. The focus of the study is on the one hand on how to proceed with the implementation of the Directive in order to anchor whistleblower protection in the regulatory system of German labour law. The second focus in this context is the question of the compatibility of whistleblower protection under labour law with the standards of data and trade secret protection law. The project will run for two years and is funded with a sum of € 40,000.

Successful first online workshop at the IAAEU

Travel - including by scientists - is currently idle, so scientific exchange across university or even national borders is a challenge. One way out is to create suitable online formats. As one of the first institutions at Trier University, the IAAEU organised a single-day online workshop on Friday, 10 July 2020, in cooperation with the Chair of Personnel Economics at department IV, on the topic of "Job Security and Employment Protection".
The response to the workshop was already high in the early planning phase: Many scientists showed interest in participating in the workshop and presenting their current research. All in all, there were significantly more inquiries than there were slots available for presentations. In the end, more than 50 people had registered to participate in the workshop in order to follow the eight presentations on the topics of job and employment security, protection against dismissal, employee fluctuation and unemployment insurance, and then to have lively discussions in the plenary session. Only the networking and the direct exchange between individual scientists is, unfortunately - for technical reasons - somewhat neglected in an online conference. But it is also clear that this workshop was a successful example of how scientific exchange can take place online when face-to-face meetings are not possible.
Based on the encouraging experiences and the consistently positive feedback, the IAAEU plans to expand the range of such workshops in the coming semester and to organise a series of thematically focused short conferences. Further information on this will soon be available on our homepage. The website of last Friday's workshop is still available here.

Study published on the ability of staff representations in public service to invoke constitutional rights

Alexander Schneider, a research associate in the Legal Team of the IAAEU, has closely researched the ability of staff representations in public service to invoke constitutional rights. The essay, published in this year’s 4th issue of the magazine “Die Personalvertretung” (PersV 2020, pages 124-135), recognizes through the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights to Art. 34 ECHR the impact of international law on the current interpretation of Art.19 paragraph 3 GG by the Federal Court of Justice. Alexander Schneider comes in his study to the conclusion, that staff representations in public service have a partial ability to invoke rights of the German constitution.

EU law requires working time recording: Consequences of the ECJ-ruling in the case ‚CCOO’ for member states and especially Germany

In his highly disputed ‚CCOO’-decision from May 14. 2019, the European Court of Justice has recognized the employer’s task to record daily working hours of their employees as a federal obligation. Dr. Thomas Klein (IAAEU) and Dominik Leist (Trier University) have invested their time in researching the backgrounds and effects of this decision and have come to the conclusion that it requires a necessary adjustment by the German federal law. Concerning this topic, several related articles have been published in German academic literature (Leist, jurisPR-ArbR Nr. 22/2019, Anm. 1; Klein/Leist, ZESAR 2019, 365-372).
The previously mentioned publications have now been complemented by an English dispatch on the homepage of the Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journals, to make the results accessible internationally. The article (Dispatch No. 19) is available under the following link.

Guest researcher Sabrina Genz

Sabrina Genz is a researcher at the Institute for Employment Research and a scholarship holder of the graduate program of the IAB. She is currently writing her doctoral thesis on German workforce adaption to digitalization as an external PhD student at the Chair for Labour and Regional Economics at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg. From November 4-15, 2019, she is a guest researcher at the IAAEU and gives a lecture in the Brownbag-Seminar on "Digging into the Digital Divide - Workers’ Exposure to Digitalization and its Consequences for Individual Employment". Her research interests are concentrated on the field of empirical labour market economics with a special focus on the employment and wage effects of technological change.

Joanna Tyrowicz reports about the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management

Our work on gender board diversity was presented during the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management (AOM), which is THE prestigious conference in management sciences. One whole week of meetings, paper development workshops, teaching workshops, q&a sessions with the editors of the main journals and last but not least, the paper sessions. This year, AOM meeting in Boston attracted 11 000 people!
Our session comprised 8 research projects on the phenomenon of women in the upper corporate echelons. The presenters numbered 16 and hailed from 9 countries and 13 unique institutions. The symposium covered a diversity of topics (e.g., corporate board quotas and codes, director appointment), theories (e.g., social categorization, economics theories), data and methodologies (e.g., interviews and questionnaires of female executives, secondary data from Boardex/Compustat, logistic regression, content analysis), and country environments (i.e., a detailed discussion of Iceland, Spain, and the US).
After the presentation, an intense discussion started, addressing the policy issues as well as some more or less technical aspects of the presented studies. Maybe it was because we were so comprehensive -- or maybe because the topic continues to be controversial, but our symposium was selected a runner up (finalist) in the Emerald Best International Symposium Award.

IAAEU participating with several contributions at the current discussion about working time recording jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice

On 14th May 2019 the European Court of Justice decided (Rs. C-55/18 „CCOO“) that the European Union law demands a general obligation to record working time called on for employers. Since the German law does not foresee such obligation so far, the judgement has caused ongoing discussions.
Employees of the IAAEU have participated in these discussions in a number of ways: Immediately after the publication, Dominik Leist commented the judgement with remarks that had been published in the Juris-Praxisreport Arbeitsrecht Nr. 22/2019 as comment 1. An extended investigation about the judgement with regards to its dogmatic backgrounds and the need for implementation into the German law followed and were dealt with by Dr. Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist. Both authors conclude that in order to be compliant with the legal requirements by the European Court of Justice, an adjustment of the German law is necessary. Though there are de lege lata civil right based possibilities for action to implement a system for working time recording for each employee as well as rights for initiative of work councils, both do not suffice to fulfil the union right obligations. The investigation has now been published in the current issue of Zeitschrift für Europäisches Arbeits- und Sozialrecht (ZESAR), issue 9/2019, S. 365-373.

Release of examination of the compatibility of the new posting directive with the primary law of the EU

In July 2018 the new European directive 2018/957/EU for the modification of European posting became effective, which aims to improve the protection of workers posted throughout the EU. The changes made due to the directive have been highly controversial even during the time of the legislative procedure since some European member states consider current pay gaps as legitimate competitive factors they want to preserve. Hungary and Poland have filed a suit against the passed directive at the European Court of Justice. They believe that the directive is incompatible with the primary law of the EU (constitutional law) and therefore seek an annulment of the directive by the European Court of Justice. In the framework of his empirical research on European posting law, Dr. Thomas Klein has dealt intensively with the pleas in law that have been brought forward by Hungary and Poland. In his opinion, the directive 2018/957/EU is compatible with the primary law. The directive can be supported by the legal basis chosen by the legislator and does not violate the freedom to provide services. Therefore, Dr. Klein expects that the annulment will not be granted by the European Court of Justice.
The examination results have been published in issue 16 (p. 673-679) in the Europäischen Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsrecht.

IAAEU at the informal exchange of legal questions of platform-based work on July 15, 2019, at the University of Salzburg

On July 15, 2019, scientists from Trier and several Austrian universities met at the University of Salzburg for an informal exchange on legal issues of platform-based work. Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, Dr. Thomas Klein, Katrin Treppschuh und Dominik Leist represented the IAAEU. At the event, short keynote speeches on various aspects of the main topic were presented from both a German and an Austrian perspective, followed by a cross-national discussion. Dr. Thomas Klein gave a lecture on civil law issues of platform-based work. A German perspective on the labour law aspects was provided by Katrin Treppschuh with a contribution on individual law and by Dominik Leist with a presentation on collective labour law issues in platform-based work. Dr. Thomas Spitzlei (University of Trier) examined the social law aspects from a German perspective. The discussion revealed similar problems in German and Austrian law, especially with regard to civil law and individual labour law issues. Collective labour law raises different questions, given the different systems at the national level. At the European level, however, these are overlaid by competition law aspects, so that there are also common points of contact in this respect.

Lecture "Streikmobilisierung auf dem Firmengelände – Arbeitskampfmaßnahmen im Spannungsfeld grundrechtlicher Gewährleistungen"

At the end of the lecture period in the summer semester 2019, the jurisprudential working group invited to a lecture on industrial action law on 11.7.2019. Prof. Dr. Jürgen Treber, Chairman Judge at the Federal Labour Court and Honorary Professor at the University of Trier, first offered a clear overview of the basics of industrial action law and then transferred it to a current case from the BAG jurisdiction on strike mobilisation on the company premises. The subsequent debate provided an opportunity for an in-depth discussion of individual issues in this ever-changing field of law.

Western Economic Association International 94th Annual Conference

Between June 28 and July 02, 2019, Western Economic Association International (WEAI) took place in San Francisco, California. Being one of the largest annual economic conferences in the world, this year it hosted 379 sessions in which more than 1308 academic papers were presented. The conference targets no single specific topic but rather features a cross-section of today’s main research focuses represented by the participating allied societies that host the conference. Topics ranged from economic history („Capitalism and Slavery“) over issues targeting societies‘ welfare (Demographic, Family, and Health Economics), monetary and trade policy, infrastructure, labour-market oriented topics (Minimum Wages, Income taxation, among others) to rather extraordinary topics like media economics, defense economics, and consumer protection. The main keynote lecture was given by Raj Chetty, with a speech on „Improving equality of opportunity: New insights from big data“.

Among the 302 European participants invited to present their research at this year’s conference was IAAEU PhD scholar Jonas Feld. He presented the latest findings from his project on “Linguistic Proximity and Heterogeneity in Returns to Migrant Skills”, which is a co-work together with Joanna Tyrowicz (also IAAEU) and Mariola Pytlikova (CERGE-EI). His talk drew attention from other participating scholars at the conference, providing him not only with many useful and highly valued comments but also connecting him to other researchers in his field of interest. Further, the possibility to hear a range of interesting presentations and to network with well-known and leading economists made participating in the event have a positive and lasting effect on Mr. Feld. The IAAEU is pleased to have been represented at such an important conference.

Guest researcher Dr. Clemens Buchen

From 18 to 21 June 2019, Dr. Clemens Buchen will be a guest researcher at the IAAEU again. He is a post-doctoral researcher at the chair of management for economics at the EBS University. Dr. Clemens Buchen works with Dr. Alberto Palermo on further progress on their joint project.

IAAEU team successful in Trier company run

The IAAEU demonstrated not only scientific but also sporting ambition and team spirit at the Trier company run on May 29, 2019. The interdisciplinary team of student and scientific staff of the institute was able to place in the middle of the team ranking.

Guest researcher Salwan Saif

Salwan Saif is s a scientific assistant at the chair of Statistics and Empirical Economic Research at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg. He is currently working as a guest researcher at the IAAEU from May 28 to June 6 and among other things he is giving a talk at the Brownbag-Seminar concerning „The Effect of Relaxed Dismissal Protection on Small German Establishments”.

Dr. Thomas Klein as an expert at the lab for platform economy of the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

The „Thought Factory of Digital Work Society“ of the Federal Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs (BMAS) conducted two parallel working labs for platform economy from May 20-23, 2019. In both labs, a group of an interdisciplinary oriented of experts of science and practice were joined to recommend and develop policy designs form platform economy. The results were presented to BMAS state secretary Björn Böhning on May 23rd and are to be included in further processes of discussion at the BMAS. Dr Thomas Klein, who had been invited by the BMAS to participate in one of the labs, contributed in the discussions with his expertise about designs of platform labour. Dr Klein conducts his post-doctoral research at the IAAEU about the civil fundaments of platform economy and accompanies the DFG research project “Crowdsourcing as a new form of labour organisation“.

Annual Meeting of the Society of Labor Economists

On May 25 and 26, 2019, the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society of Labor Economists took place in Arlington, Virginia. The event is considered one of the most renowned conferences among labour economists worldwide. This year, around 350 researchers not only from the United States but from all over the world met to discuss current questions in labour economics and personnel economics. The topics of the more than 280 presentations covered both "classical" topics and novel research areas. Central topics were, for example, the effects of automation and robotics on the current and future world of work and the economic causes of populism. Due to the wide variety of topics, the event encouraged economists with different research focuses to exchange ideas. Thus the annual conference offered an optimal opportunity for networking.
IAAEU researcher Sven Hartmann presented his work on the topic „Can Television Reduce Xenophobia? The Case of East Germany". Thanks to the helpful comments of other participants, he was able to gain new insights and ideas for future research projects. The IAAEU is pleased to have been present at such an important conference.

The effect of the EU Regulation on Posting of Workers on german national law

The European Directive (2018/957/EU) to change the directive on posted workers from 1996 (European directive 96/71/EG) was decided in summer 2018. The directive aims to improve the protection of workers posted from one EU Member State to work in another EU Member State. The changes are to be put into practice in national law by all EU countries by July 2020. Dr. Thomas Klein and Alexander Schneider have investigated the revision on European level thoroughly and published their finding in this year’s first issue of the magazine Soziales Recht (SR 01/2019, p. 21-36). In the second part of the investigation, which has been published in the following issue of the mentioned magazine, Dr. Klein and Alexander Schneider present the effects of the changed directive on German laws and offers suggestions for realisations of the directive. The article has already attracted keen interest in the topic (i.e. Zimmer, Arbeit und Recht (AuR) 2019, p. 152 ff.) and may attract even more attention within the framework of the pending legislative procedures to implement the changes in the employee secondment law. Moreover, other countries might find the article just as relevant since Klein and Schneider do not only see design possibilities for the employee secondment law, but also for a new fundament of the tariff loyalty clauses of the countries’ procurement laws.
Labour Law Practitioner Seminar 2019

From May 9 to May 10, 2019, this year's labour law practitioner seminar under the direction of Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter took place at the Federal Social Court in Kassel. The seminar was opened by the speaker Dr. Karen Vahl, who in her lecture highlighted the employment law implications of the sale of a corporate division. Dr. Boris Alles then gave an insight into two cases from the practice of industrial constitution law. The seminar was concluded by Prof. Dr. Thomas Weiss, who presented strategic and tactical considerations as well as possible legal constructions of the negotiation results in reconciliation of interests and social compensation plan negotiations on the basis of a practical example. After each lecture, the participants used the opportunity for interesting and sometimes controversial discussions.
Impressions of the Practitioner Seminar

11. Workshop on Labor Economics 2019 at the IAAEU

Fifty guests in total, many interesting presentations as well as scientific exchange at the highest level- this is the final result of the Workshop on Labour Economics, which has taken place on April 12 and 13, 2019 at Trier University.
For the eleventh time has the IAAEU’s economics team offered this conference - which has already established itself in the field of personnel and labour economics in the European sphere. The event was promoted and financially supported by the center of graduates ("Graduiertenzentrum") of Trier University.
In total, 34 researchers- of which 19 were junior scientists- were able to present their latest findings. The topics of this year’s conference ranged from standard topics of personnel economics and labor economics to further related areas. For instance, one presentation covered the impact of job insecurity on health, while another one focused on a possible connection between the extent of regional immigration on life satisfaction of the local population.
Putting its focus on junior scientists, the conference offered a great chance of professional exchange for PhD students. Each of the juniors was assigned to a senior - an experienced researcher who was to evaluate the work process and the final presentation. Subsequently to the presentations, a short discussion by the respective senior enabled the young scientist to attain new perspectives of their field of research. This way ambiguities and methodological issues were discussed and the junior’s work could be qualitatively improved. In addition, the event aimed at forming cooperative relationships between scientists; especially among juniors and seniors.
The award for the best contribution ("Best Paper Award") was handed out twice this year: once for a theoretical essay, which analyzed how financial compensations of high- and low-skilled workers are affected by technological change and intensified use of capital in the production process, both in a short- and long-term perspective. The author of this essay, Michael Knoblach, from the Technical University of Dresden, was visibly happy about receiving the award: “I did not expect this at all. I am certainly honoured for receiving such an award for my work!” Nicolas Apfel, from the University of Regensburg, was similarly enthusiastic about receiving an award for his contribution, which focused on improving estimation results subject to uncertain causality issues: “I am very happy about receiving this award and I hope that the findings of my research will help other fellow researchers”. Mr. Apfel was given the award not least for his programmed statistical application, with which his research strategy can be transferred easily onto similar methodological problems in other contexts as well.
Yet again, the attractiveness of this event has been emphasized by the high number of attendees this year. In total, there have been 90 applications - more than three per available presentation slot. We can look back at a successful Workshop on Labor Economics and thank all participants for their involvement and for the success of this event!

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Impressions of the WLE 2019

Marco de Pinto receives Professors Certificate

The self-image of the IAAEU is to conduct interdisciplinary, socially relevant research and thus to provide employees with excellent conditions for further professional steps. One indicator of the success of the promotion of young scientists is the positions that IAAEU employees take on following their work in Trier. A further chapter can now be added to the success story documented in the Institute's annual reports. Marco de Pinto has started his position as Professor of Economics at the IUBH University of Applied Sciences on February 27, 2019. This career step was made possible among other things by the research and teaching activities demanded and promoted by the IAAEU. In his research, Prof. Dr. Marco de Pinto dealt with aspects of labour market economics and international trade as well as the combination of both topics. For this conjunction, Mr. de Pinto, together with colleagues from the ZEW, the University of Münster, and the Aix-Marseille School of Economics, successfully raised third-party funds. In addition, there have been numerous collaborations with researchers, e.g. from the IAAEU and the Universities of Kassel, Constance and Münster. These have resulted in a large number of projects and publications. The paper that achieved most success was "The Impact of Unionization Structures with Heterogeneous Firms and Rent-Sharing Motives", published in the Scandinavian Journal of Economics. Furthermore, Mr. de Pinto has also taught numerous courses, such as Personnel Economics (Bachelor) and Labor Contracts (Master), which have always been very well evaluated by the students. In the case of Prof. Dr. Marco de Pinto, there is one special feature: in order to complete the above-mentioned third-party funding project, he will remain with the IAAEU for some time and will, therefore, continue to contribute to the research output of the institute. Both sides are looking forward to continuing the successful cooperation.

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter as co-editor of a book on international labour law

Regulations in community legislation concerning collective employment law are mostly limited to the establishment of the right to information and consultation for employee representatives in companies and corporations. Conversely, collective bargaining and industrial action law have long remained largely unaffected, because of the still unclear delimitation of competences between the community and the member states in this area. With the entry into force of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, the Union has recognized the fundamental right to form and operate a coalition. By referring to the instruments of the Council of Europe (Human Rights Convention and Social Charter), the Charter makes it possible for international labour law to have a greater influence on the Union’s legal order. This provides an opportunity for a systematic discussion of the relationship between Union law and international labour law, accompanied by a discussion of the influences of these legal sources on national law. Apart from individual publications on the subject, the first comprehensive and systematic presentation of international labour law was published by Mohr Siebeck in 2019: Heuschmid/ Schlachter/ Ulber (Hrsg.), Arbeitsvölkerrecht, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2019.

Guest researcher Dr. Clemens Buchen

From the 12th to 15th March 2019, Dr. Clemens Buchen was again guest researcher at the IAAEU. He is a post-doc researcher at the Chair of Management and Economics at the EBS University. Dr. Clemens Buchen worked with Dr. Alberto Palermo to make progress on their model, which studies the effects of interrelated incentives on team-production outcomes in organizations.

Professional workshop held by the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs in cooperation with the IAAEU

The Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (BMAS) held a range of events within the future-oriented dialogue „New Labor – New Security" that dealt with the future of labour and the welfare state. The topics included, among others, the social situation of (solo) self-employed persons. On March 7th, 2019, a professional workshop took place in the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs in Berlin, which revolved around the improvement of employment conditions for (solo) self-employed persons. Scholars, experts from relevant associations, and from the BMAS discussed possibilities to improve the (solo) self-employed persons' employment conditions and especially their income situation. Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, who already provided professional advice regarding the preparation of the workshop, moderated the event. Aside from discussing the expansion of labour law-based protection for certain self-employed persons and the advancement of the protection of home workers and quasi-subordinate persons, the participants debated the self-employed persons' possibilities to shape collective agreements. Dr. Thomas Klein, who holds the position of academic consultant at the IAAEU, presented on possible options based in procurement law that could improve pay conditions and proposed the implementation of industry-specific guaranteed minimum payments. Dr. Klein mentioned the German “Arbeitnehmerentsendegesetz” (Law on the Posting of Workers) and the “Mindestarbeitsbedingungengesetz” (Law on Minimum Working Conditions), which has ceased to be in force, as models for such regulations. Further, in the light of the growing importance of self-employed persons offering their services over online platforms (Crowdwork, Gigwork, etc.), he advocated for the operators of such platforms to carry liability in regard to fulfilling claims to remuneration. Here, too, the Law on the Posting of Workers could serve as a model.

For Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, Dr. Thomas Klein, and Dominik Leist - the IAAEU participants - the professional workshop provided interesting approaches for the current DFG research project “Crowdsourcing as a new form of labour organization”, which deals with the legal status of crowdworkers, of which the majority is self-employed.

Publishing of a recent examination of the changes to the European Posting of Workers Directive

Dr. Thomas Klein and Alexander Schneider, who are both research associates of the juridical work group of the IAAEU, closely examined legal questions regarding the changes to the European Union’s Posting of Workers Directive (Directive 71/96/EG) that were induced by the Directive 2018/957/EU that came into force in the summer of 2018 in an article that was published in the journal Soziales Recht ((SR), issue 1, 2019, p.21-36). The paper deals especially with the expansion of the catalogue of extending working conditions, the extension of universally binding collective agreements that are independent of any sector, and the extension of universally effective as well as representative collective agreements. Additionally, the article covers the new regulations regarding cross-border temporary work, the further approximation of employment conditions after a posting period of one year, and the proposals for a revision of the coordination arrangements in social law that are relevant to the posting of workers (=regulation (EG) 883/2004 and regulation (EG) 987/2009). Klein and Schneider hold the view that the individual changes bring about new features only partially. Other regulations merely confirm the existing legislation that the EJC based on the old directive. According to the authors, the posting directive is still far from equal treatment in the sense of “same pay for the same work in the same place” after the coming into force of directive 2018/957/EU. In this regard, the changes to the term of remuneration and the possibility of an extension of collective agreements that are not universally binding can be seen as improvements. Although this way of improving the protection of posted workers goes in the right direction, further efforts have to be made to achieve actually equal treatment of employees and locally hired personnel. Apart from the respective legislators, the EJC could contribute to this by attaching more importance to the free movement of workers in its jurisdiction and by giving them more weight in its considerations regarding restrictions of the freedom to provide services.

The paper - that is limited to the level of Union law - is complemented by a second article of the authors that examines the practical implementation of the changes mentioned above into German law. This contribution will be published in issue 2, 2019, of the journal Soziales Recht.

Lecture "Collective Agreements for Sole Proprietors"

The IAAEU started 2019 off with another exciting lecture for students, staff members and other interested persons. Lawyer Antonius Allgaier (Industriegewerkschaft Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt) gave a lecture on 16th January 2019 regarding "Collective Agreements for Sole Proprietors". By doing so, he presented vividly which challenges the growing number of sole proprietors in the construction industry entails. He especially discussed the issue of training cost levy and the respective BAG verdict from 1st August 2017. As usual, the lecture closed with an open discussion that covered unanswered questions.
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"Changing the perception of diversity"

Understanding diversity is as challenging as understanding what limits its presence in the first place. After some quite shocking insights from research by Alice Wu, the profession of economists in the US has undertaken several actions. First, the American Economic Association (AEA) released a climate survey among its members to research the prevalence of inappropriate behaviours and identify what exactly members themselves define as inappropriate. AEA has also opened EconSpark an internet forum to divert attention and user traffic from EconJobMarketRumors, with the intention that unlike EJMR, EconSpark will provide a safe and encouraging environment, due to transparency. But irrespectively of these actions, the AEA 2019 meetings in Atlanta have proven to be extremely rich in research that analyzes the roots of discrimination and barriers to diversity. The papers on this particular research agenda complemented the commonly present macro, micro, theory, econometrics, and the always pressing uncertainty about the fate of the US economy. The discussions encompassed not only direct empirical and experimental evidence on discrimination and diversity: during a few panels, the top minds of economics discussed how to rid the profession of stimulating but also discouraging hostility during the seminars, extreme drive to competitiveness and other indirect mechanisms which drive women and minorities away from economics.

Our presentation concerned the mechanisms behind gender board diversity in small and medium enterprises. It has been previously established that the stocklisted companies with women on supervisory (non-executive) boards tend to achieve greater diversity when nominating the members of the executive (management) boards. Our study shows that this mechanism works only for the stocklisted firms: the companies which are not under public scrutiny of the shareholders have much fewer women on supervisory boards and much more women on management boards, ceteris paribus.
"Working through Platforms"

In response to the growing importance of platform based work and the accompanying challenges, the professional conference "Arbeiten auf Plattform" was held in Berlin on the 6th of December, 2018. Personal and staff council representatives, union representatives scientists and politicians all discussed their experiences with the platform based work at the conference, which was organized by ver.di and IG Metall. The IAAEU was also represented by Dr. Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist. In a poster-session, Dominik Leist presented a portion of his dissertation on possibilities for collective articulation of interests by platform workers.
Foto Berlin
Dr. Thomas Klein (left) and Domik Leist
Copyright Foto: Christian Jungeblodt

BMAS Professional Workshop "Social Protection for the Self-Employed – the development of new criteria for accessibility" – Moderated by Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter

As part of the Dialogue for the Future "New Work – New Security" on the 29th of November 2018, the German Federal Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs hosted a professional workshop on the topic "Social Protection for the Self-Employed – the development of new criteria for accessibility". The topic has won increasing political relevance against the backdrop of an increasing number of self-employed and solo-self-employed persons and the lacklustre social protection to which they have access. Experts and scientists from Germany and from abroad took part in the workshop which was moderated by Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter Among the topics discussed was how planning and legal certainty can be improved in practice. In addition, models for including the self-employed statutory pension insurance were proffered. Along with Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, Dr. Thomas Klein also participated in the workshop.

Guest researcher Dr. Clemens Buchen

From the 26th to the 29th of November, 2018, Dr. Clemens Buchen was guest researcher at the IAAEU. He is a post-doc researcher at the Chair of Management and Economics at the EBS University. Dr. Clemens Buchen worked with Dr. Alberto Palermo to develop a model able to disentagle the effects of interrelated incentives on team-production outcomes in organizations.

Broader, farther, smarter

Much like the ancient Olimpians who collected trophies from competitions, IAAEU economists used the summer to collect merit badges from numerous conferences: we have been to 29 different events, vast majority of them international and widely recognized. In these events we have presented 19 different studies.
The first merit badge was for networking. Sven Hartmann disseminated broadly his xenophobia research, which was all the more relevant given the rising interest in this topic. Gabriel Schultze interacted with people who specialize in working with SOEP data. The whole team encouraged collaboration with IAAEU staff and invited to present papers in our seminar series, especially Alberto Palermo the coordinator of the seminar.
The second merit badge was for furthering the understanding of our research fields. Konstantin Homolka had the pleasure to interact with Martin Dufwenberg to advance his work on cheating. Sven Hartmann discussed economics of xenophobia with Simon Gaechter.
The third merit badge is for broadening of the perspectives. Each of the events had a different audience – from theory and industrial organization (e.g. EARIE), through institutional economics (e.g. SIOE), personnel economics (e.g. WK Personnel Workshop), labor economics (e.g. EALE) to general interest events (e.g. EEA). We also went to specialized workshops (e.g. behavioral and experimental economics, business administration). If you present one study to such diverse audiences, you are bound to receive broad and inspiring comments, even if they are from outside the current scope of work. For example, Alberto Palermo received comments to his work on family firms from theorists, personnel scholars and labor economists. Laszlo Goerke interacted with both specialized audiences and general interest participants to discuss his work on product market imperfections and labor market design.
The fourth merit badge is for learning the new things. Joanna Tyrowicz was particularly stunned by the keynote address of Sascha O. Becker on forced migration. Jonas Feld and Konstantin Homolka appreciated greatly the hints for young scholars on how to develop research projects, network, and improve clarity of presentations. Presenting to rooms packed with audience – as was the case for xenophobia talk by Sven Hartmann during his EEA session is also a skill worth acquiring.
Given this breadth of experiences, no wonder even injuries did not prevent us from travelling thousands of kilometers to experience all that. Looking forward to the summers to come!

Presentation: "The role of new intermediaries in negotiating labour conditions for the solo self-employed"

On Wednesday the 14th of November, 2018, Jun.-Prof. Dr. Caroline Ruiner presented her newest research in a guest lecture titled "The role of new intermediaries in negotiating labour conditions for the solo self-employed". Referring to the results of the research project "Collective Individualisation – Individual Collectivisation?", she discussed the role that new intermediaries, such as agencies and cooperatives, play in negotiating the labour conditions for the highly qualified solo self-employed. Using examples from three exemplary occupational groups, she illuminated which aspects of labour conditions are negotiated by these intermediaries and with which frequency. Finally, she explored the effects of these developments can have on labour markets and on the labour conditions of non-self-employed. The presentation was concluded with an interesting, demonstrative discussion.

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Impressions of the presentation

Dr. Benjamin Schwanebeck guest at the IAAEU

From the 12th to the 15th of November, 2018, Dr. Benjamin Schwanebeck was guest researcher at the IAAEU. He is post-doc researcher at the Chair of Economics, specifically International Economics, at the Fernuniversität Hagen. Together with Dr. Marco de Pinto, Dr. Schwanebeck worked on the development of a new research project. In this project, the macroeconomic consequences of labour market imperfections are analysed with explicit consideration of different financial restrictions in interaction with heterogeneous companies.

International Workshop "Team Dynamics and Peer Effects" on November 9th und 10th, 2018

On November 9th and 10th, 2018 the economic work group of the IAAEU along with the Chair of Personnel Economics of Trier University hosted a workshop concerning "team dynamics and peer effects". The main focus of the workshop was issues regarding behavior and decision making in teams. Additionally, examinations that explored the change in performance of workers when their work process was not isolated, but in the presence of others, were presented. Building on the influence others have on individual performance, Julia Müller (University of Münster) and her co-author investigated the classic measurement problem of isolating individual performance in teams. Christian Grund (RWTH Aachen University) presented a research project in which the real-world subjects' productivity was influenced by innovative virtual technology while they were competing with digital avatars. Together with his two co-authors he showed that the mere presence of an avatar already increases productivity, with other factors having negligible effects. Following a number of fascinating presentations, an evening program, which was linked directly to the topic of modern work development, took place: In »»generator 2018 Andrea Diederichs guided our guests through the exhibition "Marx and Digital Capitalism". During this tour, the participants could, with the help of artistic impulses, reflect on the diverse research projects that had been presented. In total, eleven researchers presented their findings during the workshop. The IAAEU and Trier University were represented by two projects. We are happy that we could enable researchers to meet and engage in scholarly exchange once again. Moreover, we want to thank Trier University for supporting the workshop financially through the intramural research funding.
Impressions of the workshop

IAAEU Researchers visit the Luxemburg Central Bank's Labour Market Workshop

Two IAAEU researchers, Jonas Feld and Gabriel Schultze, took part in the Labour Market Workshop held by the Central Bank of Luxemburg on the 25th and 26th of October, 2018. The goal of the workshop was to encourage exchange between labour market economists from Luxemburg and its neighboring countries. Jonas Feld presented his findings on the effects of national minimum wages on inner-European labour migration and showed that labour migration regions avoid raises to the minimum wage. Gabriel Schultze presented a research project on the connection between union membership and overtime. His study showed that union members in Germany work about three quarters less over-time per week. In addition to seeing many acquaintances from the Greater Region Research Network, new connections were made with international researchers. Feel free to contact the researchers with any questions about their projects.

Joanna Tyrowicz's research visit at the IOS

In October Joanna Tyrowicz stayed at the Leibniz Institute for East and Southeast European Studies (IOS) Regensburg within the Visiting Scholars Program. Joanna's interest relate to labor market inequality, in particular in a comparative context. She has analyzed the patterns of female barriers in employment (a study forthcoming in Social Science Research) as well as consequences of labor market shocks for gender wage inequality. Her new project, commenced in Regenesburg, relates working time flexibility to gender wage inequality. According to Claudia Goldin (2014), wage gap due to gender is a phenomenon of the past. Goldin argued in her AEA 2014 presidential address, giving examples of several occupations, that the gap between men and women follows from the ability to supply labor with flexibility in terms of working time and timing. Occupations where the employers' demand for flexibility was reduced, due to e.g. change in technology of production, have observed low and declining gender wage gaps (adjusted and raw). This formulation is supported by a recent overview by Blau & Kahn (2017), who argue that the unadjusted gaps in wages between men and women have declined in the US due to a closing gap in educational attainment and change in the occupational structure of the economy. Also Ngai & Petrongolo (2017) argue in a stylized simulation model setting that the rise of the service economy could be a powerful equalizing force if women have a comparative advantage in the rising sector. This recent literature reorients the concept of gender wage gap viewed as discrimination to a one, where observed gender wage gaps after adjusting for individual characteristics are merely a consequence of omitted variable bias or a systematic measurement error related to inadequate tackling of the working time flexibility wage gap. This reorientation of the empirical literature need not be adequate for countries other than the US. Few countries have implemented equal opportunity legislation to the same extent as the US and in few other countries the decline in the adjusted gender wage gaps has been keeping up with the pace observed in the US. In fact, in a meta-analysis for a wide selection of countries Weichselbaum & Winter-Ebmer (2011) find that the decline in the scope of the adjusted gender wage gap appears at a rate of approximately 0.15% per year. Given that the average adjusted gap in the advanced economies is in excess of 10%, wage equality seems like a distant perspective. Eastern and South-Eastern Europe are especially interesting cases, because adjusted gender wage gaps are among the highest there and do not seem to decline at all. Baltic states and the Balkan countries report adjusted gender wage gaps of as much as 40%. Also employment gaps are not declining (although these were lower in level terms than in the Western European countries). In her new project, Joanna wants to take seriously the hypothesis of the working time flexibility and inquire its validity in the context of countries characterized by high labor market inequality in terms of gender.

Ruling on the ban on civil servant strikes

The German Federal Constitutional Court ruled on the 12th of June 2018 that civil servants do not have the right to strike. Dr. Thomas Klein (academic advisor at the IAAEU) has given this decision a great deal of attention and come to the conclusion that the court's argument for this decision failed to attend to, or more specifically, gave too little weight to central aspects of the case. In particular, the constitutional right of civil servants to free association was given too little weight. Furthermore, the court’s interpretation of the European Court of Human Rights decision was also open to critique. An objection from the court in Strasbourg would, therefore, have a serious chance at success. Dr. Klein’s discussion of the decision was published in band 10/2018 of the Journal "Arbeit und Recht" (AuR 2018, 479-484).

The Future of Labour Law

On the 19th of September, 2018, a conference on "The Future of Labour Law" took place in Miskolc, Hungary. After the Hungarian Minister of Finance opened the conference, renowned scholars and union representatives from Germany, Austria and Hungary gave talks. The conference was organized by the University of Miskloc and supported by the Hungarian Ministry of Finance as well by the European Union. Prof. Schlachter gave a presentation on the topic "Bargaining collectively for self-employed service providers – EU-law under the influence of international law".
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monica Schlachter
Prof. Monika Schlachter as a speaker

New Monograph from Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter

A new monograph, M. Mironi/ M. Schlachter: Regulating strikes in essential services – a comparative "law in action" perspective, Wolters Kluwer 2018, has been published. It is the result of the IAAEU comparative legal studies project "Strikes in Essential Services", which has been underway since 2016. The monograph includes reports on industrial action rights in 14 different countries, a report on the common regulatory framework on international labour law as well as a final chapter on comparative legal issues. It showcases the product of the German-Israeli-Foundation’s (GIF) financial support for the project to the public at large. Please find further information and the structure of the work here.

Labour Market Effects of Unions – On the role of unevenly distributed union power

IAAEU economist Dr. Marco de Pinto and Prof. Dr. Jochen Michaelis from the University of Kassel recently published a study on the effects of unions on labour markets in the journal Economic Modelling. In their theoretical model, the authors started from the empirically validated observation that a union's bargaining power is decisively dependent on firm productivity. Analyzing a general improvement of union's bargaining strength (e.g. through increased right to strike), they find that the implied rise in unemployment is smaller than in the reference case of uniform bargaining power across all firms. The heterogeneity of bargaining power thus lowers, ceteris paribus, unemployment. Beyond that, the authors discussed the labour market effects of trade liberalization. When unions for highly productive firms are particularly strong (weak), trade liberalisation increases (decreases) unemployment.

New Study on the Employment Effects of Collective Agreements

In English-speaking countries, the employment growth in firms where unions have influence over pay and working conditions is much lower than in firms without collective wage bargaining. Because collective bargaining in these countries tends to take place at plant level, the results of studies concerning these conditions cannot be easily generalised for application to other countries. Laszlo Goerke (Trier) and Tobias Brändle (Tübingen) have now examined if there is a connection between commitment to collective agreements and employment in Germany. In Germany, about 50% of employees are paid according to sector-wide collective agreements and a further 10% fall under plant-level agreements. As a result, the consequences of the observed connection between collective agreements and employment effects in Great Britain and the USA would be of a much higher magnitude for economy-wide employment in Germany than in countries with fewer commitments to collective agreements.
In their study, which was recently published in the Scottish Journal of Political Economy, the authors show that the employment growth for companies with collective agreements is lower than for those without them in Germany as well. The effect is, however, much less pronounced. In addition, the authors find no differences between sector-wide and plant-level collective agreements. They then examine if the collective agreements are the actual cause of lower employment growth. And while Laszlo Goerke and Tobias Brändle were not able to completely answer that question, their results indicate that the collective agreements are not likely to be the root for differing developments. It seems instead to be the case that companies with lower employment growth levels tend to have adopted collective agreements while those with higher employment growth have not. Accordingly, the study does not provide evidence supporting the claim that the decline in collective agreements is the reason for the currently positive employment trends. The study has also been published in the IAAEU Discussion Paper 01/15.

New Publication: Labor reallocation and demographics, Journal of Comparative Economics

Joanna Tyrowicz and her co-authors discuss the mechanics behind the labor market reallocation and structural change in economies undergoing a transition from central planning to a market economy. We find is that these economies were really standard markets, even during the early years of transition. Yes, massive layoffs and public sector collapsing, but this was just like a regular crisis to the labor markets, not a specific transition crisis. The labor market flows and the mechanics of structural change are such that rather than worker flows between jobs (from collapsing to newly emerging), there is a generational exchange. A worker, dismissed from an old-style job in an old-style industry, is more likely to find a similar job than to find a job in the new part of the economy. Meanwhile, graduates, with no prior experience, go where the new sectors of the economy grow: new firms and new jobs. By consequence, majority of the change in the structure of employment is not because workers flew from old to new sector, but because older workers left the labor markets and young workers entered not in their shoes. This finding is supported by the analysis of the labor market flows for 27 transition countries with the use of the novel Life in Transition Survey, developed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This data covers the labor market biographies of individuals as far back as to 1989, asking about education, job changes as well as many characteristics of the employers. Our study compares the role of the demographic flows to the ones theorized in transition literature, such as flows between SOEs and private sector (Aghion and Blanchard model of 1994) and the flows between sun-setting and sun-rising sectors (a number of models by Cabaillero and Hammour from mid 1990s). We find that majority of the change in the employment structure did not follow the theoretical prescriptions of either of these models. It is thus likely that the labor market policies were insufficient in scale to effectively facilitate the worker reallocation in the ways previewed by reallocation models. This holds despite the fact that most transition countries adjusted substantially labor market structure in terms of ownership and industry composition in a relatively short period of time. It also appears that a substantial number of workers in transition countries may have considered retirement benefits as safety nets in the expectation of becoming non-employed rather than as a consequence of experiencing redundancy. These early exits have relieved the downward pressure on wages by the job-seekers and permanently increased the non-wage employment costs, hence hindering the job creation.

New Publication: Does Age Exacerbate the Gender-Wage Gap? New Method and Evidence From Germany, 1984–2014, Feminist Economics

This analysis seeks to understand the changes in the gender wage gap as women age. Our research indicates that with age, gender differences in conditional wages grow; though this widening of the gap appears to be non-monotonic. The adjusted wage gap grows the fastest when women turn 30, possibly explained by intensified caring activities. This evidence is consistent with existing attempts to explain wage inequality; however, we also observe that the wage gap increases in the post reproductive age, which presupposes a challenge to human capital literature. In terms of policy implications, the fact that gender wage gap adjusted for individual characteristics continues to grow also in the post-reproductive age, hints that at various stages of career different instruments may be needed to mitigate the gender labor market inequality. At younger ages, linking maternity benefits to previous employment earnings, increasing the availability of childcare facilities and encouraging more equal split of the child rearing between men and women might help to reduce the unexplained wage gap. However, in older age groups, such instrument may be insufficient. Notably, addressing gender wage gap among older workers could also help to increase female labor market participation on later stages of their life, thus helping to mitigate the costs of an ageing workforce.

How many consecutive days of work are allowed by union law?

The working-hours directive stipulates in Art. 5 that a minimum of 24 hours rest per 7 days must be provided, in addition to the daily periods of rest. In the case C- 306/16 ("Maio Marques da Rosa / Varzim Sol - Turismo, Jogo e Animação, SA"), the European Court of Justice grappled with this provision for the first time. In this case, the court understood the provision to mean that the weekly period of rest need not necessarily follow 6 days of work, thus finding that, even beyond the exceptions in the directive, 12 consecutive days of work are admissible under union law. This interpretation has been called into question by Dominik Leist in a new study that finds the court’s decision failed to adequately honour the health policy dimensions of labour law. Furthermore, the European Court of Justice only partially examined the questions raised by the case and, in particular, failed to perform the required operationalisation of the term "7 day period", thereby omitting the resulting perspectives from their analysis. The whole contribution from Dominik Leist was published and can be found in the Zeitschrift für europäisches Sozial- und Arbeitsrecht (ZESAR), Issue 08/2018, pp. 338-341.

Virtual Employment in the Context of a Changing World of Work

In a contribution for the Neue Zeitschrift für Sozialrecht (NZS), Alexander Schneider (IAAEU researcher) and Dr. Thomas Spitzlei (Academic Councillor and Post-Doctoral Candidate under the Professorial Chair of Prof. Dr. Timo Hebeler, University of Trier) examine virtual employment in the case of workplace accident compensation as covered by § 2 Abs. 2 S. 1 SGB VII in the context of a changing world of work. The status of virtual employment is determined through four criteria which were established in the Federal Social Court of Germany in 1957: the following must apply for the bespoken employment (1.) the work must seriously serve the interests of an external company, (2.) in accordance with the actual or suspected purpose of said company (3.) that would otherwise be attended to by persons who are professionally or personally dependent upon said company, whereby (4.) the work can take place under conditions that are similar to that of a normal employment relationship. The fourth condition requires of the work which led to the accident that it be a position available to the general labour market. The authors explain why the "general labour market" condition, as stipulated in § 2 Abs. 2 S. 1 SGB VII, is no longer appropriate in a modernised world of work. Argumentative contradictions are shown in the judgements on cases concerning dog-sitting and riding animals. Furthermore, concerns about the constitutional legitimacy of the settlement practices are made. The authors are of the opinion that the fourth criterion must, in light increasing complexity in the world of work, be abandoned. The article (NZS 2018, 633 – 638) can be read under beck-online.

Research Cooperation with Dr. Ulrich Zierahn

From the 23rd to the 25th of July, 2018, Dr. Ulrich Zierahn was active as a guest researcher at the IAAEU. He is a Senior Researcher at ZEW. During his stay Mr. Zierahn worked together with Dr. Marco de Pinto on the joint third-party funded project "Local labour markets - The causes and consequences of spatial differences in labour market outcomes across cities in France and Germany". Here, the researchers are investigating the reallocation of the workforce due to increasing international interdependence.

Labour Law Practitioners' Seminar 2018

On the 19th and 20th of July, 2018, this year's labour law practitioners' seminar took place at the Federal Social Court of Germany in Kassel under the leadership Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter The seminar was opened by attorney at law Rolf-Christian Otto, who held a presentation on the reimbursement of worker’s council members. Following that, Dr. Thomas Klein spoke about the new legislation being planned in the coalition agreement concerning fixed term contracts, examined their constitutionality and presented his own suggestion for implementing the planned changes. The seminar was closed by Dominik Leist with a presentation on collective contracts for platform employees. In his presentation he highlighted constitutional and civil legal issues surrounding the regulation of collective unions of crowdworkers and discussed the use of European and national cartel prohibition laws.

Project-Workshop "Crowdsourcing as a New Form of Labour Organisation"

On Thursday the 12th of July, the IAAEU together with researchers from the University of Bremen hosted the Project-Workshop "Crowdsourcing as a New Form of Labour Organisation" in the institute's Max-Weber-Room. The goal of the workshop was the interdisciplinary examination of current questions surrounding crowdsourcing, from both economic and legal perspectives. The workshop was opened by Dr. Thomas Klein with his lecture "An Introduction to the Legal Problem of Minimum Wage for Crowdworkers de lege ferenda". In his talk, Dr. Klein first described the legal framework for arrangement model behind the contractual relationship into which crowdworkers enter in order to ascertain, in a second step, if current legal provisions would support the minimum wage for crowdworkers. Following that, Lisa Nagel presented her work on the question "Does Group Identification Affect the Performance of Crowdworkers?", whereby she studied whether a crowdworker’s identification with their platform influences work performance. Katrin Treppschuh examined four different US and British court decisions to determine the place of crowdworkers in their respective legal systems in her presentation "The Crowdworkers’ Legal Status in US American and British Jurisprudence". The first part of the workshop was closed by Eliza Stenzhorn’s presentation "How does Platform Design and Competition Affect the Welfare Distribution among Crowdworkers, Crowdsourcers and Platforms?", in which she studied the transferability of an crowdworker’s online reputation between platforms and the advantages and disadvantages associated with them. The second day of the workshop was opened by Dominik Leist with his contribution "Collective Contracts for Platform Employees". He described simple legal and constitutional rulings on crowdworker collective associations and investigated what role European monopoly laws could play in that context. The workshop was closed by Dr. Lars Hornuf with his presentation on the topic "Crowdsourced Innovation: How Community Managers Affect Crowd Activities". The individual presentations concluded with in-depth discussions among the workshop participants.
Impressionen Impressionen Impressionen
Impressions of the workshop

Are workers and trade unions allowed to strike on company premises?

Workers demonstrating with flags and posters in front of a factory gate - images that many associate with a strike. But are trade unions and employees allowed to use the employer's premises at all for this purpose or can the employer prohibit the use with reference to his domestic authority? This question is the subject of a current study by Dr. Thomas Klein, published in the May issue of the journal Arbeit und Recht (p. 216 ff.). Klein concludes that the employer's domiciliary right must withdraw from the union's right to strike if the use of the company premises is necessary for communication with employees and the interests of the employer are not unduly affected. This can be assumed, for example, if the premises are extensive and communication with the employees at the entrance to the site is not possible. The union's pickets should then, for example, address workers at the company car park and inform them about the strike and the strike targets. Against the background of currently pending appeals at the Federal Labour Court concerning ver.di's strike measures on Amazon's premises, the study has a high degree of practical relevance.

International law binding character of the rulings of the ILO monitoring committees

On the 23rd of April, 2018, the IAAEU invited Hendric Stolzenberg LL.M. Eur., research assistant at the Institute for Civil and Business Law at the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, to give a lecture at the Institute. He spoke on the topic Binding International Law of the Proceedings of the ILO Monitoring Committees". The event ended with a discussion of around 20 participants.
Hendric Stolzenberg in front of the participants

Workshop on Labour Economics 2018 at the IAAEU

On the 13th and 14th of April 2018, the 10. Workshop on Labour Economics of the Economic Working Group at the IAAEU took place. Compared to the previous year, the already high number of submissions was exceeded once again, with almost 80 papers suitable for presentations - a clear indicator of the increasing awareness and relevance of the conference among labour market economists in Germany and Europe. Around 35 scientists from all over Europe and China were selected from all submissions to present their current research results in numerous parallel and poster sessions. In terms of content, the submissions focused primarily on the optimal design of labour market institutions, for example, how strict the protection against dismissal should be, or which characteristics should form an optimal unemployment insurance system. Max Friese from the University of Rostock addressed the question of whether unemployment insurance is efficient, if it diversifies its risk over large geographical areas - in other words, whether, for example, it makes sense to have joint unemployment insurance for all EU states. The research questions of Mario Bossler and Duncan Roth - both from the IAB in Nuremberg - and Karsten Staehr from the University of Tallinn are also highly topical in political terms; all three authors examined the labour market and employment effects of minimum wages in different ways. Moderate changes in the level of a minimum wage seem to have negligible effects on employment, but at the same time, minimum wages can effectively compensate wage inequality. Once again this year, the workshop was promoted by the special support of young scientists: About half of the invited scientists are currently in the doctoral phase and are therefore particularly dependent on expert advice and feedback from established senior researchers. At this point, the workshop continues each year and provides each young researcher with an experienced research mentor. Following his own presentation, this mentor critically discusses and questions the research, but also appreciates it. "I have only received so many new implications for my own research at a few conferences so far," said the doctoral student Max Friese from the University of Rostock, for example, where the contribution of his discussant led to a lively discussion with the other participants of the lecture. This year's IAAEU Best Paper Award went to Laura Khoury, a PhD student from the Paris School of Economics. In her working paper entitled "Unemployment Benefits and the Timing of Dismissals: Evidence from Bunching at a Notch in France", she shows that it can be effective for certain workers and companies in France to register temporarily unemployed and receive unemployment benefits. This incentive is particularly attractive to certain groups of highly qualified people. The aim of the French unemployment insurance system of primarily financing low-skilled workers on a transitional basis and enabling them to return to work quickly is therefore being opposed and needs to be reformed. We thank all participants of this year's workshop and look forward to a further exchange and especially a reunion at the Workshop on Labour Economics 2019 in Trier next year.
Impressions of the Workshop

Hugo Sinzheimer Prize 2017 for Dr. Thomas Klein

On March 22nd, 2018, Dr. Thomas Klein was awarded the Hugo Sinzheimer Prize 2017. The prize, dedicated to the jurist Hugo Sinzheimer, is awarded annually by the Hugo Sinzheimer Institute for Labor Law (HSI) in Frankfurt am Main for outstanding dissertations on labor law completed at a German-speaking university. The prizewinner was selected by a jury comprising Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Ulrich Preis (University of Cologne), Prof. Dr. Marlene Schmidt (Director Hugo Sinzheimer Institute) and Prof. Dr. Bernd Waas (Goethe University Frankfurt am Main). The prize was awarded to Dr. Thomas Klein's dissertation on the topic "The right to collective bargaining and strike for civil servants in privatised companies using the example of postal successor companies", which was written between 2013 and 2016 under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter and published by Nomos Verlag in 2017. In his laudation, Prof. Dr. Jens Schubert (Leuphana Universit) acknowledged the outstanding scientific achievements of the work, which made an important contribution to the current discussion on the right to strike by civil servants. The award ceremony took place as part of the annual Sinzheimer Lecture at the Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main.
f.l.t.r. Prof. Dr. Antoine T.J.M. Jacobs (Tilburg University), Dr. Johannes Heuschmid (HSI), Dr. Thomas Klein, Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter, Dr. Daniel Hlava (HSI), Prof. Dr. Jens Schubert (Leuphana University Lüneburg)

Excursion to the European Court of Justice, Luxembourg

On February 27th, 2018, the Chair of Public Law, International Law and European Law of Prof. Dr. Alexander Proelß, the Chair of German and Foreign Public Law, Constitutional Church Law and International Law of Prof. Dr. Alexander Proelß, held a conference on the topic of "International Law of the Church". Dr. Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, M.A. and the IAAEU legal team of Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter took an excursion to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. The educational trip was aimed at students and doctoral candidates of the Faculty of Law at the University of Trier. The visit to the ECJ focused on participation in the hearing in the IR case (C-468/17). The interpretation of the Anti-Discrimination Directive 2000/78/EC in relation to the German provision of § 9 AGG, which allows the religious communities in Germany to permit unequal treatment in employment/occupation on the basis of religion or ideology according to their own self-conception, was discussed. The case was referred to the ECJ for a preliminary ruling by the German Federal Labour Court. In preparation for the oral hearing, Dr. Thomas Klein and Prof. Dr. Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, M.A. gave an introduction to the relevant aspects of labour law, constitutional law, international law and European law at the lecture at the court hearing at Trier University.
Teilnehmer der Exkursion
Participants of the excursion at the ECJ
The health suitability as a prerequisite for access to the civil service for life?

On the 14th of December, 2017, Anna Donner, research associate at the IAAEU, successfully finished her disputation. It was examined under the chairmanship of Prof. Dr. Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, M.A., Prof. Dr. Timo Hebeler and Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter. Ms. Donner's dissertation on the topic "Die gesundheitliche Eignung als Zugangsvoraussetzung zum Beamtenverhältnis - Ein Auswahlkriterium fernab des Leistungsgrundsatzes gemäß Art. 33 Abs. 2 GG im Spannungsgefüge zwischen fehlenden Rechtsgrundlagen und Diskriminierung aufgrund der Behinderung" is to be published in 2018.
Prof. Dr. Timo Hebeler, Anna Donner, Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter, Prof. Dr. Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, M.A.

The concept of employment under social law in the digital world of work

On the 5th of February, 2018, the IAAEU was allowed to welcome Dr. Christian Mecke, judge at the Federal Social Court, to a lecture at the institute. He gave a lecture on the topic "The concept of social law employment in the digital world of work". The event ended with a discussion of the participants.

Labour Law Seminar in Trier

On the 17th of November, 2017, this year's labour law seminar took place under the direction of Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter. About 25 labour law and social lawyers from all over Germany participated in the event. Dr. Thomas Klein opened the seminar with a lecture on the organization of strikes at the employer’s factory premises with a subsequent discussion. Dr. Hans-Jürgen Rupp raised questions on the prohibition of evidence problems in the labour court process and presented his own approach to a possible solution. The seminar ended with the following discussion.
The seminar participants in the Max-Weber-Room at the IAAEU

Adrian Chadi Follows the Call to a Junior Professorship

After five years of post-doctoral research at the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU), Dr. Adrian Chadi will be assuming a W1-Junior Professorship for Personnel Economics and Human Resource Management at the University of Konstanz, beginning on the 1st of October, 2017. The IAAEU congratulates Adrian Chadi for his honourable calling to Konstanz, thanks him for his exceptional work and wishes him all the best during this new phase of his academic career. When he arrives in Konstanz, Adrian Chadi will continue to research along lines he has pursued at the IAAEU, where he published a number of high-profile studies in the area of personnel economics (see: Oxford Economic Papers, Management Science and Journal of Economics & Management Strategy). In the future, his research will become more focused on behavioral economic aspects, due in part to the excellent resources for this work at the University of Konstanz, both in terms of personnel and organizational structures. Adrian Chadi will also maintain a strong connection with the IAAEU, not least due to several joint research projects, be it on educational economics or in the area of labour market research.

W2 Professorship for Lars Hornuf

After almost three years, Junior Professor Dr. Lars Hornuf will be leaving the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU) to follow the call to a W2 Professorship in Business Administration, dealing in particular with finance services, at the University of Bremen. Following Vanessa Mertins who, in 2015, assumed a W2 Professorship at the University of Vechta, as well as Mario Mechtel, Sabrina Jeworrek and Adrian Chadiwho have all been name W1 Professors, Dr. Hornuf's move to Bremen is a shining example of the IAAEU’s personnel politics. During his time at the IAAEU, Lars Hornuf finished a DFG project on crowdinvesting which he began before moving to the IAAEU, won two competitive calls for proposals from the Federal Ministry for Finances and published 17 articles in journals including, among others, the International Review of Law and Economics, the Journal of Corporate Finance, the California Management Review as well as Small Business Economics. The excellent conditions for research at the institute also allowed him to take part in 53 national and international workshops and conferences. Among those events attended were the annual conferences of the American Law and Economics Association at Columbia and Yale Law School, the European Finance Association and the European Economic Association as well as the Law and Economics Forum of the London School of Economics. In addition, Lars Hornuf was invited to be a panelist at this year’s G20 Finance Conference in Wiesbaden. During his time at the IAAEU, he was also a Visiting Research Fellow at the Social Science Research Institute, Duke University as well as Visiting Researcher at the Georgetown Law School. He was also named Affiliate Member of the CESifo Research Network, Research Fellow at the Centers of Finance of the University of Regensburg as well as Affiliated Research Fellow at the Max-Planck-Institute for Innovation and Competition.
Lars Hornuf's research at the University of Bremen will be focused on the digitalisation of the finance and innovation markets. He will continue to work in cooperation with the IAAEU through a joint research project which was recently approved for funding by the DFG on the topic of "Crowdsourcing as a New Form of Labour Organisation: Regulation Requirements and Welfare Effects."

IAAEU Secures a Third-Party Funded Project from the DFG

The Directors of the IAAEU, Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter and Prof. Dr. Laszlo Goerketogether with Prof. Dr. Lars Hornuf, were able to secure a third-party funded project from the German Research Foundation (DFG) in August 2017. The project deals with crowdsourcing as a new form of labour organisation and studies specifically the regulatory requirements and welfare effects of crowdsourcing. The research project is scheduled to run for 3 years with a funding of € 460,000 in total. These resources will be used primarily to fund three research positions with the duties of investigating economic and legal aspects of crowdworking. The economic portion of the research project will be lead in large by Prof. Dr. Lars Hornuf, who, beginning on the 1st of October 2017, will be assuming a professorship at the University of Bremen. Dr. Thomas Klein (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) will be the coordinating partner at the IAAEU..

Dr. Ulrich Ziehran as a visiting researcher at the IAAEU

From the 15th until the 17th of May 2017, Ulrich Zierahn was a visiting scientist at the IAAEU. Currently he is employed as a Senior Researcher at the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW, Mannheim) and conducts research on the ramifications of technological change, international trade and offshoring. During his research residence in Trier, Mr. Ziehran collaborated with Dr. Marco de Pinto on the third-party funded project "Local labour markets – The causes and consequences of spatial differences in labour market outcomes across cities in France and Germany". The researchers investigated the reallocation of labor caused by the increasing international integration.

The IAAEU welcomes Jonas Feld

Since October 1st, 2017, the IAAEU has a new employee. Mr. Jonas Feld, M.Sc., has joined the economics working group. Between 2010 and 2015 he earned his Bachelor Degrees in Economics and Political Science from Trier University. During this time he also spent one year at Lancaster University in England. From 2015 to 2017, he further studied Economics in a double master’s program, earning a M.Sc. in Economics at Trier University and a Magister in International Economics from University of Warsaw. So far, his main research interests focus international trade and labor market economics. We are very excited about the collaboration and wish Mr. Feld all the best during his doctoral studies.

IAAEU research on the effects of work-related changes

Are employees happier, when they change their job? Adrian Chadi and his long-standing co-author Clemens Hetschko (FU Berlin) are investigating this question in various research projects. The results of the two researchers have meanwhile led to a great response in both national and international media. Recently, Clemens Hetschko has been interviewed for the print edition of the Süddeutsche Zeitung (please find the article hier). Last year, the British newspaper Guardian already reported on the research of Chadi and Hetschko in a contribution. The focus of the study was the influence of job changes on overall life satisfaction of the employees. The corresponding study is available as an IAAEU Discussion Paper and can be downloaded here free of charge. In a second study, Chadi and Hetschko analyzed, whether job satisfaction is dependent of job changes. The investigation was recently accepted for publication in the "Journal of Economics & Management Strategy" and analyzed the satisfaction of employees after a voluntary job change. In order to experience the so-called "Honeymoon-Effect" of higher job satisfaction in a new environment himself, Adrian Chadi will hold a junior professorship for personnel economics and human research management at the University of Constanze on 1 October.

IAAEU Employees at the 7th Assistants' Conference for Labour Law

From the 27th to the 29th of July, 2017, the 7th assistants’ conference for labour law took place at the Bucerius Law School in Hamburg. Over one hundred young researchers attended the conference and spent three days discussing legal changes and innovations under the motto "The Awoken Legislature in Labour Law – Regulation and Deregulation in Labour Law". Dr. Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist were panel participants in a podium discussion on the constitutionality of § 11 Abs. 5 AÜG, a law forbidding the use of temporary workers as strikebreakers. Some legal literature had expressed concerns about the constitutionality of the new law and it thus provided an excellent opportunity for the participants in Hamburg to engage in a controversial discussion of contemporary legal problems. Both of the participants from Trier used their keynote speeches and their time during the podium discussion to explain the necessity and constitutionality of the new regulations.

IAAEU Labour Law Working Group Excursion to the European Court of Justice

On the 18th of July, the labour law working group from the IAAEU under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter went on an excursion to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. The field trip was intended for students and doctoral candidates from the University of Trier School of Law. The main purpose of the excursion was to observe the oral proceedings from the case Egenberger (C-414/16). The case concerns religious discrimination in ideological enterprises and the day’s proceedings took place in the main chamber of the ECJ. The case was submitted to the ECJ by the German Federal Labour Court for preliminary ruling.

Dr. Thomas Klein as Expert Witness before the German Parliamentary Committee for Labour and Social Affairs

On the 19th of June 2017, the German Parliamentary Committee for Labour and Social Affairs hosted an expert panel in public session to review the bills from the CDU/CSU and SPD concerning the protection of social security processes under collective agreements and changes to labour court laws (the bill can viewed in German under the Bundestagsdrucksache 18/12510The law was intended to insure the binding character of a series of social security agreements after newer judgements from the Federal Labour Court cast doubts about the legal legitimacy of past claims to universal applicability based on collective agreement legislation. While a law had been passed to protect such agreements in the construction sector (Sozialkassenverfahrensicherungsgesetz – SokaSiG vom 16. Mai 2017, BGBl. I, pp. 1210), a law for which Dr. Klein was engaged as an expert witness before the parliamentary committee, the new bill was intended to extend the protection to a further eleven sectors (e.g. the painter and varnisher craft, the roofing trade, the baking craft, the bread and industrial baking industry as well as for editors of daily newspapers). Beyond that, the bill proposes changes to labour court laws with the intention of increasing the efficacy of legal protections in social security litigation.
In his statement to the committee, Dr. Klein expressed his strong support for the bill. The proposed provisions were advisable in order to protect social security processes under collective agreements and to ensure legal certainty. Neither were there grounds for constitutional objections to the proposed legislation. He argued, however, that the bill did not go far enough as it included only the protection of the universal applicability of collective social security agreements. The newer judgements from the federal labour court called into question the universal applicability of a large number of collective agreements. With this in mind, Dr. Klein suggested a supplement to the bill. Dr. Klein’s written testimony to the committee can be found under the following link.

Workshop for applied microeconomics in Marburg

On the 25th and the 26th of May 2017, the second Workshop for applied microeconomics took place in Marburg. As in previous years, the workshop was organized by Prof. Dr. Tim Friehe (Marburg University). In addition to the initiator Prof. Dr. Laszlo Goerke (Director of the economic research team at the IAEAU), Prof. Dr. Eberhard Feess (member of the board of trustees) and Dr. Marco de Pinto (research associate at the IAAEU) participated in the workshop. While Laszlo Goerke presented the results of his research paper "Unionization and Firm-selection – the Role of Firm-specific Bargaining Power", Marco de Pinto gave a lecture on "Unionization and Firm-selection – the Role of Firm-specific Bargaining Power". Florian Baumann, Evelyn Korn, Elisabeth Schulte and Alexander Rasch also participated in this year’s workshop.

Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist on the Compatibility of German Corporate Co-Determination and European Union Law

After a submission by the Court of Appeals in Berlin, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) will make a decision on the compatibility of German corporate co-determination with European Union law. The motivation for the submission was the electoral rules of German co-determination laws. According to these rules, only the domestically employed have both the active and passive right to vote for the supervisory board. Critics have expressed doubt in the jurisprudential literature about the legitimacy of this rule under European law. Thomas Klein (IAAEU) and Dominik Leist (Trier University) have, in keeping with the submission to the ECJ, investigated the legal situation and have come to the conclusion that neither the anti-discrimination clause from Article 18 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) nor the guarantee of free movement of workers under Article 45 of the TFEU conflict with German labour law. Their work can be read in German at the Zeitschrift für europäisches Sozial- und Arbeitsrecht (ZESAR) and has already been noticed and commented upon in the Böckler-Impuls 16/2016.

Publication on employment protection of disabled persons

In December 2016, the German Bundestag and Bundesrat passed a law enhancing the protection of self-determination and social participation of persons with disabilities (Bundesteilhabegesetz). The bill will enter into force in several stages. The first revisions became effective beginning 30 December 2016 and have several impacts for the protection from dismissal. Contrary to the previous law, the lack of representation by a before the termination of disabled employees, now leads to the invalidity of the dismissal (§95, Abs. 2, S. 3, SGB IX). In his recent publication "Der Kündigungsschutz schwerbehinderter Arbeitnehmer nach dem Bundesteilhabegesetz" (forthcoming in: Neue Juristische Wochenschrift, Issue 12/2017: 852-856), Dr. Thomas Klein analyses the legal reorganization as well as specific problems of the interpretations associated with it.

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter reported on the relevance of Public International Law at the 11th Hans-Böckler-Form

In cooperation with the Hugo Sinzheimer Institute (HSI), the Hans-Böckler Foundation (HBS) hosted the 11th Hans-Böckler-Form on Labour-and Social Security Law in Berlin on the 2nd and 3rd of March 2017. The event focused on the consequences and implications of digitalisation and internationalisation on international labour markets. In front of approximately 650 participants, Prof. Monika Schlachter opened the conference with a lecture on the relevance of international labour law for national law. Furthermore, Anette Kramme, undersecretary at the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Ingrid Schmidt, President of the German Federal Labour Court, Francois Biltgen, judge at the European Court of Justice, Prof. Ulrich Preis, researcher at the University of Cologne and Prof. Franz Josef Düwell, former judge at the Federal Court Labour, all held lectures at the Forum. In addition, researchers in six parallel forums discussed various topics, ranging from the Bundesteilhabegesetz (BTHG), the reformation of care, current developments in collective bargaining law to corporate co-determination. A detailed documentation of the conference can be found on the website of the HBS.

Lars Hornuf at G20 Conference

At the invitation of the German Federal Bank, representatives of the G20, the private sector as well as scientific experts from different universities discussed on digitization opportunities in the financial sector on the 25th of January. Prof. Dr. Lars Hornuf insisted on the importance of further research on finance technology to determine the utitlity as well as possible risks of the digitization processes. The empirical results can offer implications, how the real economy can benefit from these innovative markets.

Current Study on FinTech Markets

In a recently conducted empirical study, Prof. Dr. Gregor Dorfleitner and Prof. Dr. Lars Hornuf (IAAEU and Trier University) investigated the market volumes of German FinTech companies between 2007 and 2015. The objective of the data collection is to predict the market development of eight FinTech-segments until the year of 2035.

Dr. Thomas Klein at the Federal Committee on Labour and Social Affairs

On the 23rd of January 2017, a public hearing concerning a draft law of CDU/CSU and SPD group members on social security schemes in the construction sector (Sozialkassenverfahrensicherungsgesetz – SokaSiG – BT-Drs. 18/10631) took place in the Committee on Labour and Social Affairs of the German Bundestag. A total of 12 experts, including representatives from employers’ associations, trade unions and individual experts of the scientific community were consulted. Dr. Thomas Klein (research associate at the IAAU) participated as an expert on questions of constitutionality and the design of the draft law. A written statement by Dr. Klein, which has been submitted in advance of the hearing, can be consulted on the website of the German Bundestag. Furthermore, the journal Arbeit und Recht (AuR No. 2/2017) will publish an article of Dr. Klein on social security schemes in the construction sector.

ANR-DFG-Project - The causes and consequences of spatial differences in labour market outcomes across cities in France and Germany

ANR-DFG-Project - The causes and consequences of spatial differences in labour market outcomes across cities in France and Germany Together with researchers from the Centre for European Economic Research in Mannheim (ZEW), from the University of Münster and the Aix-Marseille School of Economics, Dr. Marco de Pinto (IAAEU & Trier University) was able to obtain third-party funding for the above named project. This project explores the causes and effects of the disparities between local labour markets in France and in Germany. On the one hand, the project will investigate why there are significant regional differences respective wage, firm productivity, labour or even cost of living. On the other hand, the reallocation of labour within specific regions will also be analysed, specifically as it is increasingly influenced by international integration. The findings have the potential to show which economic policy reactions will be of greatest benefit for the sometimes considerably different local labour markets. The analysis will take place within a theoretically founded empirical research framework based on French and German administrative microdata (DADs and LIAB). The research project is funded by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) and the ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Funding of up to 300,000€ over 36 months has been allocated for this project.

Conference "European Union and the Council of Europe – Interrelation on Fundamental (Social) Rights" in the event series "International Labour Standards"

On Wednesday the 25th of November, the Hugo Sinzheimer Institute (HSI) together with the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU) kicked off their conference "European Union and the Council of Europe – Interrelation on Fundamental (Social) Rights" in the IG Bau building in Frankfurt am Main. This conference was the start of a new series of events titled "International Labour Standards." Events in the series will be held every two years, moving back and forth between HSI in Frankfurt am Main and the IAAEU in Trier. After introductory words from Dr. Johannes Heuschmid (Deputy Director of the HSI) Prof. Jochen Abr. Frowein (Max-Planck-Institute Foreign Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg and former Vice-President of the European Commission on Human Rights) opened the event with a lecture on the developments in and background of European fundamental social rights. Following that, François Biltgen (Judge at the European Court of Law) and Prof. Monika Schlachter (Director of the IAAEU und Professor at the University of Trier) illuminated the current influence of instruments stemming from the European Council on fundamental social rights in the EU from the perspectives of the European Court of Law and academia. The second thematic block was dedicated to the accession process of the EU and the instruments available to the European Council when confronted with a negative assessment of an accession application by the European Court of Law. On that topic, Dr. Dieter Kraus (Speaker in the Cabinet of the President of the Chamber in the European Court of Law) presented the most significant points of criticism from the European Court of Justice’s assessment. Following that, Prof. Jörg Polakiewicz (Director of the Department for Law and International Law for the European Council and Professor at the University of Saarland) spoke about the accession process from the perspective of the European Council. Prof. Olivier de Schutter (Professor at the Catholic Universtiy Loewen, Belgium and the College of Europe, Poland) ended the conference with a presentation over the possibility of a European Union entry into the revised European Social Charter. Guests included around 100 researchers from several EU member states, who were all invited to participate in post-lecture discussions moderated by Prof. Manfred Weiss (Professor at the Goethe-University Frankfurt and Chair of the HSI advisory board). A conference report will be published in the journal Arbeit und Recht (AuR).
Labour and Personnel Economics in the Greater Region

On December 8, about 20 reserachers from France, Germany and Luxembourg assembled at the IAAEU. The aim of the meeting was to explore possibilities for a future, more intensified co-operation in the area of Labour and Personnel Economics among institutions located in the Greater Region. Participants from Kaiserslautern, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Strassbourg and Trier took part in the small conference. In the morning, five papers were presented, dealing with wage cost subsidies, moral hazard in labour relationships, expatriate workers, unemployment insurance and consequences of commuting to work. In the afternoon, future projects were discussed. In was agreed that a further conference will take place next year. For more detailed information, please contact Mr. Laszlo Goerke.

International Workshop "International Trade & Labour Markets"

Which impact does the increasing interdependence of commodities and capital markets have on local labour markets? This question is not only the focus of many public and public debates, but also a major focus of economic research. In order to analyze this aspect, the IAAEU and the Chair for International Economic Policy (Trier University) hosted a workshop on "International Trade & Labour Markets" on the 25th and 26th of November 2016. Numerous researchers from different European universities (f.e. France and Luxembourg) presented their papers, thus providing the foundation for scientific exchange and cooperation in the future. For example, the participants discussed the effects of the eastward enlargement of the European Union on employment in Germany and how the "Brain Drain" affects welfare in the sender and recipient countries.

The collective bargaining and strike right for civil servants in privatized companies

On November 8, 2016, Thomas Klein, a research associate at the IAAEU, successfully passed his rigorum. He was examined under the chairmanship of Prof. Dr. Alexander Proelß (Public Law) by Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter in civil law and Prof. Dr. Franz Dorn in the legal history. The dissertation of Mr. Klein, entitled "Das Kollektivvertrags- und Streikrecht für Beamte in privatisierten Unternehmen, am Beispiel der Postnachfolgeunternehmen", is expected to be published by Nomos Verlag in early 2017.
Prof. Dr. Schlachter, Thomas Klein, Prof. Dr. Proelß, Prof. Dr. Dorn

International Workshop "Subjective Survey Data in Labour Market Research" on the 7th and 8th of October 2016

The traditional autumn workshop from the economics group at the IAAEU, which has been luring researchers from all over the world each year with new thematic focal points, was back this October. The focus this year was the use of subjective data for labour market analysis and other related fields of inquiry. The large number of participants, more than 40 this year, showed how this topic could excite the research community. In addition to researchers from across Europe, guests travelled from as far away as the United States of America and India to discuss the use of subjective data at the IAAEU. One highlight was the keynote lecture from labour market researcher Andrew E. Clark (Paris School of Economics - CNRS), one of the most well-known names in the field. In his entertaining lecture, he gave an overview of the research area and presented results from his study titled „Looking for labour market rents with subjective data“. Conchita D’Ambrosio (University of Luxemburg) gave the closing lecture of the conference on the effects of familial and financial difficulties on the development of children. The autumn workshop offered diverse and exciting possibilities for discussion with a total of 25 presented research papers and a poster session. The research being conducted at the IAAEU was also in the spotlight with several new research projects among the presentations. Educational research, research on the role of unions and methodological questions about the use of subjective data were all topics at this year’s workshop.
Participants of the Workshop, Andrew E. Clark, Conchita D’Ambrosio

Legislating Equal Pay? Which advances can be expected from the planned law for just wages?

At the beginning of October, the coalition committee of the "Great Coalition" agreed upon central points for a new law intended to make wages more just. The bill is expected to be delivered to the German Federal Cabinet in December and to be passed in the summer of 2017. The IAAEU is taking the legislative initiative as an opportunity to cast light on the legal aspects of wage fairness between the sexes and, to serve this purpose, will be holding a lecture event. The event took place on the 12th of December at 6pm (cum tempore) in the Max-Weber Room of the IAAEU (Campus 2, Room H714). The attorney Dr. Lena Oerder (SLT Chancellery for Labour Law, Dusseldorf), a well-known expert on wage equality has been engaged for the lecture. Beginning with her dissertation titled "On Equal Wages for Men and Women", Dr. Oerder has long investigated the problem of wage equality, not only from a legal perspective but also from a socio-legal perspective. In her lecture, she will present information on the planned legislation and report on whether it is truly appropriate for advancing the cause of just wages.

Research Residence of Marco de Pinto at the Centre for European Economic Research Mannheim

From the 26th until the 30th of September 2016, Dr. Marco de Pinto worked as a visiting researcher at the research department "Labour Markets, Human Resources and Social Policy" of the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW). In cooperation with researchers of the ZEW, he worked on a research project, which aims to analyse the effects of international trade on employment biographies in local labour markets. Further information concerning this project can be found here.

FinTech - Empirical market conditions in Germany

Together with Prof. Dr. Gregor Dorfleitner (Regensberg University), Jun. Prof. Dr. Lars Hornuf (IAAEU and Economics, Trier University) acquired an externally funded project which is entitled "FinTech – Markt in Deutschland." The client for this project is the Federal Ministry of Finance in Germany. The project will start in January 2016 and will be completed by summer 2016.The aim of this research project is to define the term "FinTech" under consideration of the empirical market conditions in Germany and the international research literature. Furthermore, the project will try to identity the relevant Fintech institutions in Germany including their activities. Building on the entirety of that which will be defined, the research team will ascertain and analyze the market sizes and volumes. A special focus is placed on Crowdfunding, Crowdinvesting, Crowdlending, Robo Advice, Personal Financial Management and Social Trading. Finally the team will identify technological residues and barriers that hinder the development of the market. Finally, a market forecast for the next 5, 10 and 20 years will be created.

Campus Dialogue Research: "The ABC’s of the Institute"

Trier University has been producing ‚Campus Dialogue Research’ since 2014 to inform and excite the public about ongoing research conducted by the faculty. This year, the focus has been put on individual research institutions belonging to the University and The Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU) used this chance to present itself to a wider audience. Prof. Dr. Laszlo Goerke, Director of Economic Sciences at the IAAEU, held a talk titled "Institute in Dialogue" in which he first cast light on the structure of the IAAEU, the wide range of work produced there and the excellent engagement in research at the institute. The excellence of the research was underscored by the number of projects which are integrated in an interdisciplinary and international context. The diversity of the research at the IAAEU was also made apparent to visitors of this year’s Campus Dialogue through the "Marketplace of Ideas", where researchers from the institute presented exemplary new research projects with a wide variety of posters. Maike Weber presented a project which, under special consideration of the Swedish and Finnish legal situation, analyzed instruments for the improvement of employment chances for pensioners. Olga Lorenz showed empirical research investigating the effects of commuter mobility on body weight and health behavior. Lars Hornuf was introduced as new Junior Professor for the Economic Analysis of Law and shared his work on Crowd-working and Crowd-sourced Innovation. The relaxed atmosphere at this audience friendly research forum was an excellent opportunity for the IAAEU to introduce itself and come together with the community in an exciting dialogue.

Talk "Institute in Dialogue"


Lars Hornuf at the "Market Place"

Interdisciplinary workshop at the IAAEU

On Tuesday, the 10th of May 2016, the legal and the economic team organized an interdisciplinary workshop in the Max Weber-Room of the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union. The directors of the institute, Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Schlachter and Prof. Dr. Goerke as well as the scientific staff of the two teams participated in the session. The workshop was opened with a lecture by Natalia Hebold in which she presented her dissertation project "Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten des Betriebsrates bei der zeitlichen und örtlichen Entgrenzung der Arbeit durch den Einsatz moderner Informationstechnologien". Following Ms. Hebold, Dr. Adrian Chadi presented a scientific study entitled "Smartphone ban at the workplace: economic and legal perspectives", in which the performance of subjects was studied in the ban on the use of the private phones in the workplace. In the second part of the workshop Anna Donner gave a lecture about her doctoral thesis "The health requirement as a requirement for the civil service". The workshop was completed by Jun. Prof. Dr. Lars Hornuf with a presentation on "The Economic Impact of Forming a Societas Europaea." This interdisciplinary event offered the participants the opportunity to share their respective research projects and jointly discuss the work.
Dr. Adrian Chadi and the participants of the workshop

"The Right to Strike: A Need to Align Different Interpretations?"

On the 22nd of April 2016, a conference organized by the Social Justice Expertise Center (SJEC) in Leiden took place to discuss the necessity of a unified interpretation of fundamental social rights. Prof. Schlachter, judicial Director of the IAAEU and Vice President of the European Commission on Social Rights, held a lecture on the right to strike. She concluded that the ability to uphold social rights is dependent on a coherent interpretation of international regulations. The right to strike is guaranteed at the supranational level by various instruments (compare with ILO Convention Nr. 87, Art. 6 ESC, Art. 11 EMRK) whose inconsistent interpretation could hamper the protection of that very right. Particularly in times of economic crisis, the effective use of such protective instruments is of special import. The individual presentations can be found in condensed form in a recently published collected volume.

Labour Law Practioner's seminar in Kassel

On the 29th of April 2016, the Labour Law Practioners‘ seminar, led by Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, took place at the Federal Social Court of Germany in Kassel. The seminar was opened with a lecture by Dr. Doreen Schmeer concerning new ways of managing ideas und konwledge in multinational companies. Prof. Dr. Thomas Weiss followed with a discussion of problems and possible solutions to the question of whether collective agreements concerning provision of personnel should be considered to be impermissable cases of personnel leasing. The seminar ended with a lecture by Kai Hoffmeister concerning multinational corporations' execution of business unit divestiture as well as the execution of mergers and corporate reorganisation.
The participants of the workshop in front of the Federal Social Court of Germany

German-Israeli Research Cooperation Approved

The grant proposal for a comparative law study titled "Strikes in Essential Services" has been approved by the German Israeli Foundation (GIF). The project, starting in January 2016 and running over three years, and will be led Frau Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter (Universität Trier) and Herrn Prof. Mordechai Mironi (Universität Haifa, Israel). The cooperation project will study the current problem of strikes in the public welfare services, where the public interest in continual provision of welfare services stands in potential conflict with the international and constitutionally guaranteed rights of workers (freedom of association and assembly as well as the right to strike). The goal of the project is to elucidate the international guarantee of the right to strike, in particular through the detailed analysis of rulings from the Internation Labour Organization (ILO) and the instruments of the Council of Europe (Human Rights Convention and the Social Charta), and to compare these guarantees with the real world solutions to the resultant problems in the provision of welfare services as practiced in 12 different countries. The study plans to produce structured, individual reports on Brazil, Canada, Germany, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Poland, Sweden, South Africa, Great Britain and the USA. The result will be a presentation of tried regulatory models with their respective legal, economic, social and political conditions of effectiveness.

Workshop "Subjective Survey Data in Labour Market Research"

The Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union held a workshop on "Subjective Survey Data in Labour Market Research" on the 7th and 8th of October 2016. Mr. Andrew E. Clark (Paris School of Economics – CNRS) will give the keynote lecture. The workshop is aimed at empirical oriented researchers, who analyse subjective survey data as a determinant or as a result in labour market contexts.

8th Economic Workshop

On Friday, the 19th of February, the 8th Economic Workshop was held by the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU) at Trier University. As part of the workshop, scientists from different universities and research institutes shared and discussed the results of their latest research projects. As in years past, the topics covered a wide spectrum, from personnel economics to behavioral economics through to the newest research over the financial sector. Included among the lecturers were not only professors from several universities but also as promising young scientists. We were particularly pleased to welcome Benjamin Schwanebeck (Kassel University) who analyzed the impact of different examination regulations on the grades of students. Christian Haddad (University Lille II) presented legal and economic determinants, which influence the global development of FinTech Markets. The IAAEU was pleased to welcome not only German-speaking researchers, but also researchers from France, Luxembourg and Italy in Trier. At the end of the conference, both the participants and the organizers were well pleased with the quality of the lectures and discussions as well as the possibilities for networking and consolidation.
IAAEU-Research on Fraudulent Behavior within Organisations

Only recently has the press announced tot he world that VW has been using special software to cheat their way to lower nitric oxide values in their vehicles‘ exhaust for tests from organisations like the International Council on Clean Transportation. Fraudulent behavior is not, however, limited to the automotive sector; fraudulent behavior is, infact, omnipresent. There are even reports of international bankers colluding on benchmark interest rates like the LIBOR an EURIBOR in order to make illegal profits. In an experimental study that took place in cooperation between the IAAEU and the Center for Leadership and People Management (CLPM) at the LMU München, the researchers Susanne Braun and Lars Hornuf investigate the degree to which authentic leadership influences the honesty of employees. The results are informative but also sobering. Although the participants in the study percieved their boss as authentic, the subjects showed minor but persistently fraudulent behavior. Other factors such as the obviously fraudulent behavior of other subjects or personally being cheated by other subjects were also inconsequetial for an individual’s level of fraudulence. The results showed that fraudulent behavior among employees is persistent and that only long-term measures show any promise for correcting the situation. The results of the study can be found under IAAEU Discussion Paper 10/2015.

The IAAEU at the Annual Conference of the Verein für Socialpolitic (VfS)

From the 6th to the 9th of 2015, the annual conference of the Association for Social Politics, with more than 4.000 German speaking scientists as members, took place at the Westphalian Wilhelms-University in Münster. As in years past, members of the IAAEU were there to present findings from their research.One important field of study at the institute is sickness leave and it became even more apparent at this year’s conference. At the meeting concerning this topic, three different researchers form the institute presented their findings concerning the following research questions: The effect of commuting between work and home on sickness leave, The consequences of sick leave on internal career mobility, The connection between days missed and the decision to go to work despite being sick. In addition to that, there were three other studies written by members of the IAAEU and their coauthors, concerning crowd-investing, the motivation of employees in social work and the social-politic effects of the euro-crisis respectively. The widespread participation of IAAEU researchers at the most important conference for German language economists makes clear the significance and the high quality of the analysis taking place in Trier.

IAAEU Economists on the road again in 2015

2015 saw the economists from the IAAEU back on the road, sharing their newest findings with the world and entering into an exciting discourse with researchers from other institutions. On average, IAAEU scientists presented at six different conferences. At the Annual Conference of the Verein für Socialpolitik (VfS), the most important conference for German economists, the IAAEU was represented with six seperate lectures. The IAAEU was also on the scene at international conferences, both on european soil and elsewhere in the world. IAAEU researchers were present at the annual conference of the Society for Population Economics in Izmir and the Spring Meeting for Young Economists in Ghent – they even made it over the pond (for example the annual conference of the American Law and Economics Association in New York or the fourth World Meeting of the American Society of Labor Economists (SOLE) and the European Association of Labour Economists (EALE) in Montreal). The expansive lecture programme supports the exchange of ideas with other scientists and underlines the excellent research activitities of IAAEU members. More information on the specific conferences attended can be found here.

Labour Law Practioners’ Seminar in Kassel

On the 12th of June 2015, the Labour Law Practioners’ seminar, led by Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, took place at the Federal Social Court of Germany in Kassel. The seminar was opened with a lecture by Judge Ulf Kortstock from the Labour Court on the topic "The New Vacation Laws after decisions from the European Court of Justice and the German Labour Court." Judge Dr. Christian Mecke from the Federal Social Court of Germany followed with a talk on draft laws for the new organization of the rights of in-house legal counsels. The seminar ended with Judge Dr. Hans-Jürgen Rupp explaining occupational integration management during the dismissal process.

Multidisciplinary Workshop at the IAAEU

On the 7th of May 2015, a multidisciplinary workshop took place in the Max-Weber-Room of the IAAEU. Both directors of the Institute, Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Schlachter and Prof. Dr. Goerke, along with researchers from both the judicial and economic team took part in the workshop. Sabrina Jeworrek opened the workshop with a presentation over her research project titled "Works Councils and Vacation". Konstantin Esch followed by presenting the current results from his dissertation on the topic of "Risk: Portability of Company Pensions?". Dr. Mario Mechtel contributed with the newest findings from his study "The Causal Effect of a Local Alcohol Sales Ban on Crime". Thomas Klein closed the workshop with his dissertation, in which he investigates the sphere of influence of civil servants in private business on collective agreements.

Legal Problems of the new Minimum Wage

Lecture from Prof. Dr. Philipp Fischinger, LL. M. (Harvard), University of Mannheim on Wednesday the 29th of April 2015 at the IAAEU in Trier: "Rechtsprobleme des neuen Mindestlohnes" ("Legal problems of the new minimum wage"). The slides of the presentation are available here.

New visiting researcher from Lithuania at IAAEU

In April 2015, the Department of Labour Law at the IAAEU welcomed Dr. Agne Vaitkeviciute from Lithuania as a visiting researcher at the institute. During her research stay she focused on the project "Erwerbstätigkeit im Rentenalter? – Instrumente zur Verbesserung der Beschäftigungs-chancen jenseits der Altersgrenze: Anregungen aus der schwedischen und finnischen Praxis".
Prof. Goerke receives top ranking in the Handelsblatt

The economic department director of the IAAEU, Prof. Dr. Laszlo Goerke, is, according to the newest rankings by the Handelsblatt (published 15.12.2014), among the strongest German speaking economics researchers. In the category ‚Lifework‘, Prof. Goerke improved his standing from place 38 to place 28, narrowly missing the top 25. The Handelsblatt-Ranking measures the research accomplishments of over 200 active economists in Germany, Austria and Switzerland biannually. The study is done by the ETH Zurich's Swiss Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF). The rankings are based on internationally accepted evaluation standards, primarily publications in the circa 1000 international academic journals for economics. The complete Handelsblatt-Ranking can be found here.

Joseph A. Schumpeter-Prize for Dr. Mario Mechtel

Mario Mechtel, research associate at the IAAEU, was honored with the Joseph A. Schumpeter-Prize for outstanding young researchers in Department IV of the University of Trier. The Joseph A. Schumpeter-Prize monies of 1000 euros are financed by the the Deutschen Bundesbank in Rheinland-Palatinate and Saarland. The presentation of the prize took place during a graduation ceremony and was presented by the director of the Deutschen Bundesbank Saarland, Karl Heinz Thiel. The Institute is very pleased for Dr. Mechtel.

Spring Meeting of Young Economists: Best Paper Award for Dr. Mario Mechtel

Mario Mechtel, research associate at the IAAEU, was distinguished with the Best Paper Award from one of the most renowned conferences for young researchers, the Spring Meeting of Young Economists (SMYE) in Vienna. Once a year, the best young researchers from across Europe meet there to discuss new findings. This year, only 150 young researchers were selected from a total of 700 applicants to attend the conference. Along with Mario Mechtel, two other researchers from the IAAEU were selected to attend the conference, Adrian Chadi and Sabrina Jeworrek. Based on the evaluations from experts in the field, the best papers were selected and evaluated again by representatives of the programme committee and the members of the board of executives for the European Association of Young Economists. Mario Mechtel and his co-author Agnes Bäcker from the University of Tübingen were recognized for their paper titled "Peer Effects in Cheating on Task Performance". The prize came with a purse of 500 euros. The IAAEU is pleased to congratulate Mario Mechtel as the first researcher from Trier to have earned the SMYE Best Paper Award.

Dr. Mario Mechtel publishes study on consumption and status in east and west Germany in the European Economic Review.

The IAAEU would like to congratulate Mario Mechtel for his publication in one of the most renowned economic journals, the European Economic Review. The therein published cooperative project with Prof. Dr. Tim Friehe (University of Bonn) studied the influence of political regimes on individual preferences. Using data which was representative for Germany, they were able to show that "conspicuous consumption" played a much larger role in east Germany than in west Germany after the reunification. Although the considerable disparity in the consumption of goods associated with status has diminished in the last two decades, as of 2008 a significant gap still remained.
Reference: Friehe, T. and M. Mechtel, 2014. Conspicuous Consumption and Political Regimes: Evidence from East and West Germany, European Economic Review, Bd. 67, S. 62-81.

IAAEU Department of Labour Law’s excursion to the European Court of Justice

On the 20th of November 2014, the IAAEU Department of Labour Law, under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, visited the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. The excursion was planned for University of Trier law students. The focus of the excursion was the participation in oral argumentation concerning the case Lyttle u.a. (C-182/13, C-392/13, C-80/14), in which the meaning of the term establishment (Betrieb) in the legal framework surrounding collective redundancies played a central role. In addition to that, the students were able to get a personal impression of the workings and functions of the ECJ, while also getting to tour parts of the ECJ building.
The IAAEU Law Department and the students in the entry hall of the ECJ.

6th Economics Workshop at the IAAEU

On the 14th and 15th of February 2014, the 6th Economics Workshop was held by the Institute for Labour Law and Labour Relations in the European Union at the University of Trier. As part of the workshop, around 20 scientists from different universities and research institutes shared and discussed the results of their newest research. As in years past, the topics covered a wide spectrum, from personnel economics to behavioral economics through to the newest research over the financial sector. Included among the lecturers were not only professors from several universities but also as promising young scientists. We were particularly pleased to welcome Dr. Benjamin Weigert, Secretary General of the German Council of Economic Experts, as our keynote speaker as he was able to give us insights into the process of giving impartial scientific counsel to governments. The debt repayment fund, suggested by the council in 2012 as an answer to the European debt crisis, played a central role in Dr. Weigert’s lecture and was discussed critically by the young scientists present. As is tradition, the participants voted on the best lecture of the conference and this year selected Florian Baumann (University of Düsseldorf) and Tim Friehe (University of Bonn) for their work on optimal reward systems for attorneys in judicial processes. The participants were in agreement the workshop should take place again, for the seventh time, next year.

Conference on Sickness Absenteeism and Presenteeism

On the 10th and 11th of October 2013, the Department for Economics at the Institute for Labour Law and Labour Relations in the European Union (IAAEU) held a conference on "Sickness Abenteeism" while also moving into the relatively new field of ‘Presenteeism’. The idea of presenteeism, the phaenomenon of employees attending work despite their being sick, has recently moved into the focus of not just scientists but also the public at large. A significant part of the costs of sickness to society and business is not manifested in failing to appear at work, rather the costs are incurred by working sick. This was a primary reason to focus the researchers’ attention on this new field of study, without forgetting absenteeism. In addition to economists and behavioral researchers from Denmark, Germany, France, Great Britain, Austria, Spain and Switzerland, representatives from businesses and administrations also took part in the conference. The subject matter of the 12 lectures ranged from the influence of the business organization form to the effect of regional attitudes towards absenteeism. One particular study pursued the question of whether increases in sick leave during economic booms were related to an increased risk of infection in the workplace, as already sick workers were unable or unwilling to take the necessary time off. 2 of the 12 lectures were presented by scientists from the IAAEU. The 28 participants used the constructive atmosphere to engage in discussions on the presentations and were all impressed by the vitality of the research in the fields of absenteeism and presenteeism. The organizers were also extremely pleased at the large numbers of applicants to the conference, which led to only three quarters of all applicants being accepted.

5th Economics Workshop at the IAAEU Trier

On the 1st and 2nd of March 2013, the 5th Economics Workshop at the IAAEU in Trier took place. At the workshop, young academics had the chance to present and discuss their newest findings. Around 30 economists from around the world had the chance to bring together research from the fields of personal economics, labour economics, experimental economics, happiness research, financial science, international economics and political economics. The highlight was a Friday evening keynote lecture from Dr. Salvatore Barbaro, Secretary for the Ministry of Finance in the Rheinland-Palatinate. In his lecture on the topic "Prospects in the Politics of Taxation", he described three long term developmental guidelines for tax policy up to 2020. Alongside his thoughts on capital-based taxation and the maintenance of a well-functioning tax administration, he also presented concepts that can contribute to a disentanglement of fiscal federalism. The 24 lectures also proved exciting. Examples included Leonie Gerhard from the University of Frankfurt who presented an experimental study on the role of intrinsic motivation on an employee’s work effort. Another lecture, this time from Dana Sisak of the University of Rotterdam, showed that careers in which excellence was better rewarded attracted better qualified persons and drew interesting implications from the findings, concerning for example the pay scales of teachers. After the final lecture on Saturday, the participants elected a winners for the "Best Paper Awards". The prize went to Emanuel Hansen from the University of Cologne for his study on negative income taxation. At the end of the conference, both the participants and the organizers were well pleased with the quality of the lectures and discussions as well as the possibilities for networking and consolidation. All involved parties expressed excitement for a 6th workshop in the following year.

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter has been reelected Vice-President of the European Committee of Social Rights.

The ministers committee of the Council of Europe voted Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter for another two year term as Vice-President of the European Committee of Social Rights (ECSR). The job of the ECSR is the oversight of adherence to the European Social Charter. Monika Schlachter currently occupies the professorship for International and European labour law and civil law at the University of Trier and is director of the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU). She has been a member of the ECSR since 2006.
Prof. Dr. Laszlo Goerke (Universität Trier/IAAEU) and Prof. Dr. Markus Pannenberg (University of Applied Sciences Bielefeld) have recieved the DBW Best Paper Award for 2012 for their work "Ist §1a KSchG ein Nullum? Eine Analyse der Veränderung in der Verteilung der Abfindungsfaktoren in Westdeutschland." The prize is given every year by the DBW / Business Administration Review (BARev) to honor special accomplishments in the field. The winners receive a certificate documenting their achievement as well as a year's subscription to the DBW journal. The publishers choose the best paper based on the following criteria: relevante, theoretical and conceptual foundation, methodology and innovation. The laudatory announcement can be found hier.

Dr. Vanessa Mertins received the Best Paper Award from the NeuroPsychoEconomics Conference 2012 in Rotterdam. Her study "Can genotype predict player type?" (With J. Meyer and A. Schote) was chosen by a jury in a two stage process as the best in the "Social Neuroscience: Cooperation, Trust & Hormones" track and later was honored with the "Overall Best Paper Award". Congratulations!